Prezentace na téma: "Semantic Translation Polysemy, meaning change and multiple interpretations. Final Presentation."— Transkript prezentace:
Semantic Translation Polysemy, meaning change and multiple interpretations. Final Presentation
Review Eve Sweetser, From Etymology to Pragmatics Uses cognitive theory to study mappings of a form to multiple meanings in: Perception verbs Modality Conjunction Conditionals
Modals (must, have, need, ought,...) Obligation, permission, ability, necessity, probability, or possibility in: Root (real world, deontic) “Mom said that you must be home by ten.” Epistemic (reasoning) “You must have been home last night.” Root modal meaning is metaphorically extended into the epistemic domain
Modals Root: intentional, directed forces and barriers in the socio-physical domain “John may go.” > John is not barred by (my or some other authority) from going. Epistemic: epistemic forces applied by body of premises to influence the speaker “John may be there.” > I am not barred by my premises from the conclusion that he is there.
Application Analysis of modal translation (CZ > EN) in:
Modal Translation Moci (be able to, can, may) Mít (should, have to) Muset (have to, must) mappings to English modals modal negation Epistemic usage Root vs. Epistemic polysemy
Moci “Můžeš jít.” You can go. “Mohli jsme jen kroužit nad letištěm.” All we could do was circle the airfield. “Můžu na tebe sahat?” May I touch you?
Translation of “moci”
Mít “Měl jsi ho zabít!” You should have killed him! “Mám já to nahlásit?” Shall I report it? “Měli bychom si raději tykat.” We needn’t be so formal.
Translation of “mít”
Muset “Já za ní musím!” I have to see her! “Já musím neco říct tobě.” I need to talk to you. “Musíš se obálky zbavit.” Lose the envelope.
Translation of “muset”
Modal mapping CZ > EN may can ought to have to need to must “moci”“mít”“muset” Are the Czech modals less “strong”?
Modal Negation “A z nás nemusíte mít strach.” And there is no reason to be afraid of us. “To nesmíš Barčo.” You mustn’t do this, Barča. musíš :: nemusíš ≠ must :: must not smíš :: nesmíš ≠ may :: may not
Epistemic Usage “Proč já musím před každým letem mít takovouhle sračku?” Why do I have to get the shits before each flight? “Vlastně jsme ho měli dávno ztratit.” By all rights we should have lost him.
Root / Epistemic Polysemy “Ale měl by jsi je vidět.” (Root) But you should see them. (Root / Epistemic) But you should [go] see them [yourself]. (R) But you should [be able] see them. (E)
Root / Epistemic Polysemy “Měl jsi ho zabít!” (Root) You should have killed him. (Root / Epistemic) You should have killed him [by now]. (E) You should have [gone and] killed him. (R)
Conclusion Czech modals moci, mít and muset: do not have exact equivalents in English seem “weaker” than English counterparts have different negation meanings in English translate comparably into both Root and Epistemic domains can cause to Root / Epistemic Polysemy after being translated