Prezentace na téma: "Číslo projektuCZ.1.07/1.5.00/34.0028 Číslo materiáluVY_32_INOVACE_180 Název školyGymnázium, Tachov, Pionýrská 1370 Autor Mgr. Eleonora Klasová Předmět."— Transkript prezentace:
Číslo projektuCZ.1.07/1.5.00/ Číslo materiáluVY_32_INOVACE_180 Název školyGymnázium, Tachov, Pionýrská 1370 Autor Mgr. Eleonora Klasová Předmět Anglický jazyk Ročník 4.4. Datum vytvoření Anotace Výklad nové látky - Modals of speculation about the past. - prezentace Metodický pokynprezentace je určena jako výklad do hodiny i jako materiál k samostudiu Pokud není uvedeno jinak, použitý materiál je z vlastních zdrojů autora. Výukový materiál zpracován v rámci projektu EU peníze školám
Modals of speculation about the past When can we use them? We use the modal verbs must, may, might, could or can’t to speculate about events in the past. Degrees of certainty: less certain: may, might and could more certain: must certain that the statement is false: can’t, couldn’t
Past modals and meaning We can use past modals to talk about: 1/ possibility It might/may have been your husband who sent flowers and a box of chocolate. 2/ ability I could have brought you some CD instead of flowers. 3/ a logical conclusion It can’t have been John you saw. He’s on holiday. It must have been your mum who called. She calles you every hour.
4/ obligation I ought to/should have finished my project last night. 5/ a past condition I would have finished the work if I had had time. If I had been there I would have helped them.
Must, may, might, could, can’t, couldn’t + have + past participle These constructions are all used when we are speculating about events in the past. Uses: 1/ must + have + past participle is used to talk about something that we believe definitely happen, or was true in the past. ex.: The man that came to the hospital must have been mad.
2/ could/may/might + have + past participle are used when we believe it was possible that something happened in the past, but we are not sure. ex.: The photo of the ghost could have been a fake. The woman may have been woken up by the smell of smoke. The film might have been run through the camera twice.
3/ can’t/couldn’t + have + past participle are used when we believe that something did not happen. ex.: The meeting can’t have finished – there are still several people there. The trick couldn’t have been faked because a lot of people saw it. Notes: When the main verb is in the past, might and not may should be used. ex.: He thought that it might have been faked.
Can’t + have + past participle suggests that we are talking about an action or event in the past that affects something we are doing or looking at in the present. Couldn’t + have + past participle refers only to the past.
4/ Should/ought to + have + past participle Uses: 1/ To talk about an action in the past that was desirable or necessary but did not occur. ex.: I should have told him at the time, but I didn’t. I ought to have told him at the time, but I didn’t. 2/ The negative expresses a wrong or foolish action or regret. ex.: She shouldn’t have stolen the money. I shouldn’t have swum so far.