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PŘEDPŘÍTOMNÝ ČAS PROSTÝ A MINULÝ ČAS PROSTÝ

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1 PŘEDPŘÍTOMNÝ ČAS PROSTÝ A MINULÝ ČAS PROSTÝ
říjen 2013 VY_32_INOVACE_AGJ_140112 PŘEDPŘÍTOMNÝ ČAS PROSTÝ A MINULÝ ČAS PROSTÝ Autorem materiálu a všech jeho částí, není-li uvedeno jinak, je Bc. Martin Krčmař. Střední škola hotelnictví a služeb a Vyšší odborná škola, Opava, příspěvková organizace. Materiál byl vytvořen v rámci projektu OP VK 1.5 – EU peníze středním školám, registrační číslo CZ.1.07/1.5.00/

2 Předpřítomný čas prostý a minulý čas prostý Read the text and underline the verbs.
Tom: Have you ever listened to Madonna? Judy: Yes, I have. I got her latest CD for my birthday. Tom: I have seen her in concert. I saw her in Prague last year. Judy: Really? Was it good? Tom: Yes, brilliant. She played all my favourite songs. Judy: You´re lucky. I have never been to a big concert. obr.1

3 Předpřítomný čas prostý a minulý čas prostý ŘEŠENÍ
Tom: Have you ever listened to Madonna? Judy: Yes, I have. I got her latest CD for my birthday. Tom: I have seen her in concert. I saw her in Prague last year. Judy: Really? Was it good? Tom: Yes, brilliant. She played all my favourite songs. Judy: You´re lucky. I have never been to a big concert. obr.1

4 Předpřítomný čas prostý
Pravidla a použití Předpřítomný čas prostý používáme, když mluvíme: o zážitcích a zkušenostech z minulosti. Doba, kdy k nim došlo, není důležitá. I have seen Madonna in concert. Have you ever listened to Madonna? I have never been to a big concert. 2) Můžeme použít tzv. nepřesné časové výrazy. today, recently, already, just, yet, this morning, this week, since January, lately so far, up to now, ever, never etc. Srovnej: I have seen a good film recently. X I saw a good film last week. Minulý čas prostý používáme, když mluvíme: o konkrétních událostech v minulosti. Když víme přesně, kdy v minulosti k události došlo a děj je ukončen. I saw her in Prague last year. I got her latest CD for my birthday. Was her concert good? 2) Můžeme použít tzv. přesné časové výrazy (= finished time). yesterday, last week/month/year, in May, in 1995, from 1998 to 2006, an hour ago, a few months ago, once, then etc. Ptáme-li se, kdy se něco stalo, pomocí When? nebo What time?. When did they leave? What time did the concert start?

5 Další příklady a srovnání
Předpřítomný čas prostý I have lost my key. (= I can´t find it now) John has gone home. (= he isn´t here now) Have you seen Jane? (= where is she now?) Have you ever been to London? (= in your life, until now) I have lived in Opava for 8 years. (= I live there now) My friend is a writer. She has written many books. (= she still writes books) Minulý čas prostý I lost my key yesterday. John went home five minutes ago. When did you see Ann? Did you go to London last year? I lived in Ostrava for six years but now I live in Opava. Shakespeare wrote many poems and plays. (= he is dead, he can´t write anymore)

6 Vyberte jednu z možností.
obr. 2 Předpřítomný čas prostý používáme, když mluvíme: o zážitcích a zkušenostech z minulosti. Doba, kdy k nim došlo, není důležitá. Minulý čas prostý používáme, když mluvíme: o konkrétních událostech v minulosti. Když víme přesně, kdy v minulosti k události došlo a děj je ukončen. She is a Leonardo DiCaprio fan. She has seen/saw all his films. I love Chinese food, but I've never eaten/never ate Thai food. We´ve gone/went to a restaurant last weekend. We´ve had/had pasta. It has been/was Tom's birthday yesterday. His girlfriend has given/ gave him a new MP3 player. I usually get good marks in English but I've received/received a few bad marks, too.

7 Vyberte jednu z možností.
obr. 2 Předpřítomný čas prostý používáme, když mluvíme: o zážitcích a zkušenostech z minulosti. Doba, kdy k nim došlo, není důležitá. Minulý čas prostý používáme, když mluvíme: o konkrétních událostech v minulosti. Když víme přesně, kdy v minulosti k události došlo a děj je ukončen. She is a Leonardo DiCaprio fan. She has seen all his films. I love Chinese food, but I've never eaten Thai food. We went to a restaurant last weekend. We had pasta. It was Tom's birthday yesterday. His girlfriend gave him a new MP3 player. I usually get good marks in English but I've received a few bad marks, too.

8 Doplňte slovesa ve vhodném tvaru (past simple).
1) Použijte slova v závorce tak, abyste odpověděli na otázku. Have you lost your mobile? (yesterday) Yes, I lost it yesterday. Have you phoned Alex? (10 minutes ago) Yes, _______________________. Have you passed the exams? (last week) Yes, _______________________. Has Juan gone to Spain? (on Friday) Yes, _______________________. Have they had lunch yet? (at 1 o´clock) Yes, _______________________. Has he started his new job? (last month) Yes, _________________________. 2) Zeptejte se, kdy se tak stalo, pomocí When? a What time?. They have finished their work. What time did they finish their work? Tom has gone out. What time ____________________? I´ve seen Rick. When ________________________? She´s left her job. When ________________________? My father has painted the living-room. When ________________________?

9 ŘEŠENÍ: 1) Použijte slova v závorce tak, abyste odpověděli na otázku. Have you lost your mobile? (yesterday) Yes, I lost it yesterday. Have you phoned Alex? (10 minutes ago) Yes, I phoned him 10 minutes ago. Have you passed the exams? (last week) Yes, I passed the exams last week. Has Juan gone to Spain? (on Friday) Yes, he went to Spain on Friday. Have they had lunch yet? (at 1 o´clock) Yes, they had lunch at 1 o´clock. Has he started his new job? (last month) Yes, he started his new job last month. 2) Zeptejte se, kdy se tak stalo, pomocí When? a What time?. They have finished their work. What time did they finish their work? Tom has gone out. What time did he go out? I´ve seen Rick. When did you see him? She´s left her job. When did she leave her job? My father has painted the living-room. When did he paint the living-room?

10 Doplňte slovesa v předpřítomném prostém čase (I have done) nebo v čase minulém prostém (I did).
My father is a builder. He has built many houses. Charles IV. ____________(build) Charles Bridge in Prague. We __________ (play) football last weekend. My hair is clean. I _________ (wash) it. I ____________ (wash) my hair before breakfast this morning. When I _________ (be) a child, I __________(not like) sports. What time __________ (you/go) to bed last night? The bus ___________ (leave) 5 minutes ago. Karen likes travelling. She ___________ (visit) many countries. Mick works in a shop. He ___________ (work) there for 2 years. We____________(go) to the UK for a holiday last summer. __________________ (you/ever/be) to the USA? Napoleon _____________ (die) in 1821. obr.4

11 ŘEŠENÍ My father is a builder. He has built many houses.
Charles IV. built Charles Bridge in Prague. We played football last weekend. My hair is clean. I have washed it. I washed my hair before breakfast this morning. When I was a child, I didn´t like sports. What time did you go to bed last night? The bus left 5 minutes ago. Karen likes travelling. She has visited many countries. Mick works in a shop. He has worked there for 2 years. We went to the UK for a holiday last summer. Have you ever been to the USA? Napoleon died in 1821. obr.4

12 Rozhovor o zážitcích Předpřítomný čas prostý často používáme k tomu, abychom se zeptali a odpověděli na otázku o zážitcích a zkušenostech. Dále rozhovor vedeme v minulém čase prostém, když chceme sdělit více informací ke konkrétní události v minulosti. Jim: Have you ever seen a gorilla, Mick? Mick: Yes, I have. Jim: Where did you see it? Mick: I saw it at the zoo in London. Jim: When did you go there? Mick: I went there last summer. And what about you? Have you ever been to London, Jim? obr. 3

13 Povídejte si vašich o zážitcích.
Possible topics: stay at a campsite play basketball visit a museum travel abroad see a Chinese film buy an expensive present win a competition break something play a great PC game meet a famous person 1) Ask you Have you ever ……. ? your friend: Yes, I have/No, I haven´t. 2) If your friend has done that, ask about more information: you: Where did you …....? When did you …..….? What did you ....……? Who did you ……….with? etc. obr. 3

14 POUŽITÁ LITERATURA MATURITA SOLUTIONS Pre-Intermediate STUDENT´S BOOK. Oxford University Press, ISBN MURPHY, Raymond. Essential Grammar in Use. London: Cambridge University Press, ISBN

15 CITACE ZDROJŮ obr. 1: Madonnaperformingstickyandsweettour2008.jpg [online] [cit ]. Dostupné pod licencí Creative Commons z: obr. 2: LeonardoDiCaprioNov08.jpg [online] [cit ]. Dostupné pod licencí Creative Commons z: obr. 3: Male gorilla in SF zoo.jpg [online] [cit ]. Dostupné pod licencí Creative Commons z: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/50/Male_gorilla_in_SF_zoo.jpg/537px- Male_gorilla_in_SF_zoo.jpg obr. 4: DAVID, Jacques-Louis. Portrait of Napoleon in his study at the Tuileries [online] [cit ]. Dostupné pod licencí Public Domain z: Napoleon_Bonaparte.jpg


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