Present Simple: ve třetí osobě j.č. se přidává -s / -es, v ostatních osobách zůstává sloveso ve svém základním tvaru I you he she goes / does / writes / sings / hurries / plays it we you go / do / write / sing / hurry / play they otázky a krátké odpovědi se tvoří pomocí pomocného slovesa DO, DON´T Do you go to school? – Yes, I do. / No, I don´t. Does she sing well? – Yes, she does. / No, she doesn´t. Do they play tennis? – Yes, they do. / No, they don´t. zápor: He doesn´t go to work. We don´t go school. go / do / write / sing / hurry / play
Present Continuous: složený slovesný tvar, skládá se z příslušného tvaru slovesa to be a slovesa zakončeného příponou –ing Iam Youare Heis Sheisreading a book at the moment. Itis Weare Youare Theyare otázky se tvoří převrácením slovosledu: Is he reading a book? Are they reading a book?
Present Simple - usage: when we speak about situations / states that are true at the present time or usually true (permanent) She works in an office. We visit our friends every weekend. when we speak about schedules, timetables etc. The train arrives at half past two. Our plane takes off at midnight. with adverbs of frequency (always, never, often, sometimes etc.) I always get up at 6 a.m. when we speak about habitual and repeated actions / events It rains a lot here. when we speak about facts that are always true The sun rises in the east.
Present Continuous - usage for situations / states that are true for a limited period (temporary) I’m living in Hamburg at the moment. He is working on an international project this month. for actions in progress at the moment of speaking Oh no! It’s raining again! Hi, what are you doing? – I’m cooking the dinner. for situations / states that are changing Our summers are getting hotter. The population is increasing. with always, to show that st happens often and is surprising or annoying I’m always losing my keys!
State verbs - verbs that describe states (popisují stavy = „stavová“) - are not usually used in the continuous form - there are several groups of state verbs mental / thinking verbs : agree, believe, know, remember, think, understand, forget attitude verbs : hate, like, love, need, prefer, want, wish sense / perception verbs : hear, see, smell, taste appearance, qualities : appear, look (seem), seem, sound being, possession : be, belong, contain, have, own other : cost, fit, mean, owe,
Examples: I’m sorry, I don’t understand. Your job sounds really interesting. He owes me £200. Does this car belong to you? I don’t agree with you. The soup tastes awful! Sophie thinks I watch too much television. Excuse me, how much do these DVDs cost? I know him quite well. Paul loves Jane. He has two brothers.
Word order with time expressions with most verbs we put the time expression before the main verb: He never travels by bus. we put the time expression after the verb to be and auxiliary verbs: She is often late for class. We don´t always have lunch at home. we put longer expressions at the end of the sentence: My sister and I go to the cinema every Friday.