What is Cognitive From latin cognoscere = getting to know Distinguish emotional and rational Descarte’s „Cogito ergo sum“. Cognition is close to episthemology Symbolic cognitive models are theories of human cognition that take the form of working computer programs (Wilson & Keil 1999).
What is Cognitive Science Cognitive Science is the interdisciplinary scientific study of mind and its processes. It examines what cognition is, what it does and how it works (wiki). It si complex of study, which have an aim to answer old epistemological question by the empiral way. Mostly answer about nature of cognition, their resources, development, components and structuration (I. Havel). Study of all form of human inteligence – from sensation and perception, to speech, language and problem solving.
Cognitive Science Components Philosophy Neuroscience Linguistics Anthropology Psychology Artificial intelligence Philosophy of science as a phylosophy of cognition How human psyche working? How to realise all of this on computers? Language mediated cognition. Cultural determination of cognitive processes Cognition, from biological point of view.
Philosophy Philosophy of science as a philosophy of cognition Positivism –Aguste Comte –Positiv (fr.) is certain and it is repetitively observable. Phenomenology –Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger –There is no objective reality. –Subjective reality come of interpretation of the phenomenon. Constructivism –George Kelly, Humberto Maturana, Keneth Gergen –Reality is constructed by the humans.
Mind-Body Problem MaterialsmMentalismParalelInterakting Theory of identity Monism Dualism
Psychology How human psyche working? Edward C. Tolman – Cognitive map Ulric Neisser – Cognitive ecology David Marr – Human vision Jean Piaget – Structural invariants of cognitive functiones
Edward C. Tolman – Cognitive map Multimodal mental representation –Not only propositional code. –Not only analog code. –Since schema integrated both representation. Cognitive maps are a method we use to construct and accumulate spatial knowledge, allowing the "mind's eye" to visualize images in order to reduce cognitive load, enhance recall and learning of information (Wiki). If you try to draw a plan of yours dwelling environs.
Neisser's cycle of perception Cognitive Ecology Object available information Schema of environment Exploration Directs Samples Modify Actual world Cognitive map Locomotion and action
Jean Piaget Structural invariants of cognitive functiones Grupa G (A,*) Felix Klein – Erlangen program –Geometrical space is set of properties of a space that is invariant under a given group of transformations (e.g. Given object is invariant to a transformation translation). –Classification of geometries (projective, ) by their underlying symmetry (Klein) groups. Each of geometry have a specific invariant of transformation, which characterized them. Jean Piaget – psychological structuralism – Each of developmental stage have a specific invariant of transformation, which characterized them.
Linguistics Language mediated cognition. Ferdinand de Saussure John L. Austin John R. Searle Noam Chomsky
John Langshav Austin (1911 - 1960) British philosopher - linguistic phenomenalist. Object of his interest was an natural language (not artificial/logical like a B. Russel). His main work is theory of „speech act“. The language is not static system, but language is activity, is realisating of a speech act.. http://www.philosophypages.com/ph/aust.htmhttp://www.philosophypages.com/ph/aust.htm Distinguish performatives and constantives.
John Rogers Searle (1932) English philosopher, concentrated to a natural language philosophy (follower of J. L. Austin). He developing theory of speech acts. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Searle
Noam Chomsky (1928) American lingvist. He postulated hypothesis of deep and surface structures of language Deep structure is common for all nations and is inborn. Transformation between dee[p and s urface language structure is realised bz the transform grammar. http://www.chomsky.info/
Anthropology Cultural determination of cognitive processes Sapir–Whorf hypothesis - structure of a language affects the ways in which its speakers are able to conceptualize their world.
Neuroscience Cognition from biological point of view. Karl Pribram – holografic theory of memory.
K. H. Pribram Původem český neurovědec,který přišel s teorií, podle níž jsou informace v mozku ukládány ve více vrstvách, přičemž se jedna informace vyskytuje v několika nebo ve všech těchto vrstvách. Tím se vytváří její komplexní (prostorový) obraz a současně je z možné z jednoho fragmentu rekonstruovat celou informaci. http://www.cts.cuni.cz/events/pribram.html K., H., Pribram. Mozek a mysl. Gallery, Praha 1999. Fourierova transformace – převod dat z časoprostorové (globální) domény do spektrální (lokální).
Artificial Intelligence How to realize all of this on computers? The science and engineering of making intelligent machines
Marvin Minski (1927) American mathematician. He imagine human thinking as a process of transformation of symbols of outer and inner world, according to given rules. http://web.media.mit.edu/~minsky/ AI is the ability of a computer or other machine to perform those activities that are normally thought to require intelligence.
George Kelly (1905 - 1967) Teorie osobních konstruktů (Personal construct theory) způsob popisu, hodnocení, interpretace a vysvětlení světa test repertoáru rolových konstruktů (role construct repertory test).A person.s processes are psychologically channelized by the way in which he anticipates events.
Čím mohou jednotlivé CS přispět? Filosofie AI Psychologie Lingvistika Antropologie Neurovědy