2 What is Cognitive From latin cognoscere = getting to know Distinguish emotional and rationalDescarte’s „Cogito ergo sum“.Cognition is close to episthemologySymbolic cognitive models are theories of human cognition that take the form of working computer programs (Wilson & Keil 1999).
3 What is Cognitive Science Cognitive Science is the interdisciplinary scientific study of mind and its processes. It examines what cognition is, what it does and how it works (wiki).It si complex of study, which have an aim to answer old epistemological question by the empiral way. Mostly answer about nature of cognition, their resources, development, components and structuration (I. Havel).Study of all form of human inteligence – from sensation and perception, to speech, language and problem solving.
4 Cognitive Science Components How human psyche working?Philosophy of science as a phylosophy of cognitionPhilosophyNeuroscienceLinguisticsAnthropologyPsychologyArtificial intelligenceHow to realise all of this on computers?Language mediated cognition.Cultural determination of cognitive processesCognition, from biological point of view.
5 Philosophy Philosophy of science as a philosophy of cognition PositivismAguste ComtePositiv (fr.) is certain and it is repetitively observable.PhenomenologyEdmund Husserl, Martin HeideggerThere is no objective reality.Subjective reality come of interpretation of the phenomenon.ConstructivismGeorge Kelly, Humberto Maturana, Keneth GergenReality is constructed by the humans.
6 Mind-Body Problem Monism Dualism Materialsm Mentalism Paralel InteraktingTheory of identity
7 Psychology How human psyche working? Edward C. Tolman – Cognitive mapUlric Neisser – Cognitive ecologyDavid Marr – Human visionJean Piaget – Structural invariants of cognitive functiones
8 Edward C. Tolman – Cognitive map Multimodal mental representationNot only propositional code.Not only analog code.Since schema integrated both representation.Cognitive maps are a method we use to construct and accumulate spatial knowledge, allowing the "mind's eye" to visualize images in order to reduce cognitive load, enhance recall and learning of information (Wiki).If you try to draw a plan of yours dwelling environs.
9 Neisser's cycle of perception Cognitive Ecology Actual worldObjectavailableinformationSamplesModifySchemaof environmentExplorationLocomotion and actionCognitive mapDirects
11 Jean Piaget Structural invariants of cognitive functiones Grupa G (A,*)Felix Klein – Erlangen programGeometrical space is set of properties of a space that is invariant under a given group of transformations (e.g. Given object is invariant to a transformation translation).Classification of geometries (projective, ) by their underlying symmetry (Klein) groups. Each of geometry have a specific invariant of transformation, which characterized them.Jean Piaget – psychological structuralismEach of developmental stage have a specific invariant of transformation, which characterized them.
12 Linguistics Language mediated cognition. Ferdinand de SaussureJohn L. AustinJohn R. SearleNoam Chomsky
13 John Langshav Austin (1911 - 1960) Distinguish performatives and constantives.British philosopher - linguistic phenomenalist. Object of his interest was an natural language (not artificial/logical like a B. Russel). His main work is theory of „speech act“. The language is not static system, but language is activity, is realisating of a speech act..
14 John Rogers Searle (1932)English philosopher, concentrated to a natural language philosophy (follower of J. L. Austin).He developing theory of speech acts.
15 Noam Chomsky (1928)American lingvist. He postulated hypothesis of deep and surface structures of language Deep structure is common for all nations and is inborn. Transformation between dee[p and s urface language structure is realised bz the transform grammar.
16 Anthropology Cultural determination of cognitive processes Sapir–Whorf hypothesis - structure of a language affects the ways in which its speakers are able to conceptualize their world.
17 Neuroscience Cognition from biological point of view. Karl Pribram – holografic theory of memory.
18 K. H. PribramPůvodem český neurovědec,který přišel s teorií, podle níž jsou informace v mozku ukládány ve více vrstvách, přičemž se jedna informace vyskytuje v několika nebo ve všech těchto vrstvách. Tím se vytváří její komplexní (prostorový) obraz a současně je z možné z jednoho fragmentu rekonstruovat celou informaci.K., H., Pribram. Mozek a mysl. Gallery, Praha 1999.Fourierova transformace – převod dat z časoprostorové (globální) domény do spektrální (lokální).
19 Artificial Intelligence How to realize all of this on computers? The science and engineering of making intelligent machines
20 Marvin Minski (1927)American mathematician. He imagine human thinking as a process of transformation of symbols of outer and inner world, according to given rules.AI is the ability of a computer or other machine to perform those activities that are normally thought to require intelligence.
21 George Kelly (1905 - 1967) .A person.s processes are psychologically channelized by the wayin which he anticipates events.Teorie osobních konstruktů (Personal construct theory)způsob popisu, hodnocení, interpretace a vysvětlení světatest repertoáru rolových konstruktů (role construct repertory test)
22 Čím mohou jednotlivé CS přispět? FilosofieAIPsychologieLingvistikaAntropologieNeurovědy