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TERCIE 2014 MENDEL´S LAWS Výukový materiál GE 02 - 40 Tvůrce: Mgr. Šárka Vopěnková Tvůrce anglické verze: ThMgr. Ing. Jiří Foller Projekt: S anglickým.

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Prezentace na téma: "TERCIE 2014 MENDEL´S LAWS Výukový materiál GE 02 - 40 Tvůrce: Mgr. Šárka Vopěnková Tvůrce anglické verze: ThMgr. Ing. Jiří Foller Projekt: S anglickým."— Transkript prezentace:

1 TERCIE 2014 MENDEL´S LAWS Výukový materiál GE Tvůrce: Mgr. Šárka Vopěnková Tvůrce anglické verze: ThMgr. Ing. Jiří Foller Projekt: S anglickým jazykem do dalších předmětů Registrační číslo: CZ.1.07/1.1.36/ Tento projekt je spolufinancován ESF a SR ČR

2  founder of the science of heredity:  Johann Gregor Mendel  a Moravian priest  he published results of his experiments with pea crossing in 1865 in Brno  the result of Mendel´s experiment:  some „elements" are responsible for a particular property, the character of the organism (eg. flower colour) MENDEL´S LAWS

3  in 1865 he talked about their attempts to „Experiments on Plant Hybridization“ in Brno  lecture remained misunderstood and did not raise a larger response  result of his research was recognized only 40 years later MENDEL´S LAWS

4  elements are transmitted through sexual cells  he called these elements endowments  nowadays they are called genes  at the birth of every individual combine the talents of male and female origin are combined  all together determine the shape of a feature  through the combination of genetic information of two individuals arises original set of information for the growth of a new individual MENDEL´S LAWS

5  gene = endowment:  information about the formation of certain features of organisms  allele:  particular shape of a gene  gene may have 1,2 or more alleles MENDEL´S LAWS

6  genotype:  set of all alleles in a cell  genome:  set of all genes of a particular organism  phenotype:  is the external manifestation of the genotype  set of all features of the organism  form a specific shape of features (flower colour, stature) GENES

7 1st MENDEL´S LAW of uniformity F 1 generation crossing of a dominant and a recessive homozygot parents P: gametes: posterity F 1 : AA x aa A A a a Aa

8 crossing of identical homozygotes parents P: gametes: posterity F 1 : A A x A A A A AA AA MENDEL´S LAWS

9 of heterogeneity F2 generation crossing two heterozygotes parents P: gametes: posterity F 1 : Aa x Aa A a Aa AAAa aa phenotypic splitting ratio 3 : 1 genotypic splitting ratio AA : Aa : aa 1 : 2 : 1 2 nd MENDEL´S LAW

10 crossing a homozygote and a heterozygote parents P: gametes: posterity F 1 : Aa x aa A a aa Aa aa posterity is splitting in the relation 1 : 1. so called backcrossing is used to determine the genotype of an individual with a dominant form of character aa MENDEL´S LAWS

11 gametyAa AAAAa a aa  to simplify the notation can be used so called combination squares possible genotypes MENDEL´S LAWS

12 gamety indicate the possible genotypes :1) crossing of two different homozygotes 2) crossing of two identical homozygotes 3) crossing of two heterozygotes WORKSHEET

13  HANČOVÁ, Hana. Biologie v kostce 1: Obecná biologie. Mikrobiologie. Botanika. Mykologie. Ekologie. Genetika. 2. vyd. Havlíčkův Brod: Fragment, 1999, 112 s. ISBN  DOBRORUKA, Luděk J. Přírodopis: Obecná biologie. Mikrobiologie. Botanika. Mykologie. Ekologie. Genetika. 1. vyd. Praha: Scientia, 2000, 159 s. ISBN SOURCES


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