Kdy používáme? Vyjadřuje děj, který se odehrál před minulostí. vypravujeme a nedodržíme posloupnost děje, tzn. nevypravujeme události přesně tak, jak šly po sobě. Hojně se používá v časových souvětích se spojkami typu: after, before, when
Grammar had + past participle (3rd type of the verb) + I had seen him before he left for the USA. - I had not seen him before he left for the USA. ? Had you seen him before he left for the USA?
I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet
Short forms 1/ Affirmative sentences: I had played chess before starting with piano. I had played chess = I'd played chess. 2/ Negative sentences: I had not gone shopping. I had not gone = I'd not gone
Past simple or past perfect? Simple Past can be used instead of the Past Perfect when the action refers to a specific time in the past. Then we must use "before" or "after" in the sentence. "before" and "after" tell us what happened first, so the Past Perfect is optional. Thus both sentences are correct: 1/ She had visited London once in 2001 before she moved there in 2008. 2/ She visited London once in 2001 before she moved there in 2008.
If the Past Perfect is not referring to an action at a specific time, Past Perfect is needed. Compare the examples: 1/ She never saw a crocodile before she moved to Australia. Not Correct !!!! She had never seen a crocodile before she moved to Australia. Correct Here Past Perfect is referring to a lack of experience. Simple Past cannot be used.
Compare Past PerfectPast Simple The movie had started when he got to the cinema. The movie started when he got to the cinema. - the movie was already playing when he arrived - the movie started after he arrived
What happened first? 1/ The thief had spent the money before the police caught him. A, The thief spent the money. B, The police caught the thief. 2/ Sam had washed the dishes and turned the TV on. A, Sam washed the dishes. B, Sam turned the TV on. 3/ Yesterday Maria arrived late because she had worked a lot. A, Maria arrived late. B, Maria worked a lot.
Fill in the correct form of the verb 1/ The wave destroyed the sandcastle that we (build) __________. 2/ The doctor took off the plaster that he (apply) _________ a month ago. 3/ I could not remember the words we (study) _________ a week ago. 4/ (phone) ______ they ________ you before coming for a visit? 5/ She _________ (ride) a bike before today. 6/ He _________ (visit) London before moving there.
Match the halves of the sentences 1/ He couldn't come to the party. a/ but he still had not heard any news. 2/ They talked to each other for some time b/ yet I do not believe them because they did it well. 3/ I phoned him to ask about the job he had applied forc/ when we got home. 4/ When I saw him d/ before they realized they had met before. 5/ They said they had never skied before e/ when suddenly I bumped into him in a shop. 6/ I had not seen him for a very long time f/ He had already bought the tickets to the theatre for that day. 7/ She had already finished cooking the dinner g/ he told me about the girl he had met.
Complete the questions in Past Perfect Simple. (what/Bob/do) that he was kept in after school? (you eat) before you went to the theatre? (they/book) a room before they went to Dublin? (how often/ring) the bell before he answered the door? (she/wash) the dishes when her mum came home? (you/read) the contract before you signed it?
Further practice http://www.englishgrammarsecrets.com/pa stperfect/menu.phphttp://www.englishgrammarsecrets.com/pa stperfect/menu.php
INVESTICE DO ROZVOJE VZDĚLÁVÁNÍ Tento projekt je spolufinancován Evropským sociálním fondem a státním rozpočtem České republiky. Tato výuková prezentace byla pořízena z finančních prostředků hrazených Evropským sociálním fondem a rozpočtem České republiky.