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THE LIMBIC SYSTEM Institute of Anatomy, 2nd and 1st Medical Faculty R. Druga.

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Prezentace na téma: "THE LIMBIC SYSTEM Institute of Anatomy, 2nd and 1st Medical Faculty R. Druga."— Transkript prezentace:

1 THE LIMBIC SYSTEM Institute of Anatomy, 2nd and 1st Medical Faculty R. Druga

2 LIMBIC SYSTEM Limbic cortex = g. cinguli + g. parahippocampalis + hippocampal formation ( gyrus dentatus, hippocampus, subiculum) Limbic cortex = g. cinguli + g. parahippocampalis + hippocampal formation ( gyrus dentatus, hippocampus, subiculum) Subcortical structures = amygdala, septum verum, habenula, hypothalamus Subcortical structures = amygdala, septum verum, habenula, hypothalamus

3 Funkce limbického systému Emoční reakce a jejich kontrola (Papez 1937) Emoční reakce a jejich kontrola (Papez 1937) Viscerální mozek (MacLean 1949) Viscerální mozek (MacLean 1949) Paměťové mechanizmy, Emoce Paměťové mechanizmy, Emoce

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9 1- hippocampal body 2 – head and digitationes hippocampi 3 – hippocampal tail 4 – fimbria (fornix) 5 – fornix 6 – subiculum 10 – collateral eminence Intraventricular aspect of the hippocampus (hippocampus from above)

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12 Andersen ´s circuit

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14 Papez circuit

15 Papez circuit Papezův okruh Hippocampal formation – fornix – hypothalamus ( mamillary ncc.) – tr. mamillothalamicus - thalamus (ant. ncc.) – gyrus cinguli – gyrus parahippocampalis (entorhinal area, 28) – hippocampal formation Hippocampal formation – fornix – hypothalamus ( mamillary ncc.) – tr. mamillothalamicus - thalamus (ant. ncc.) – gyrus cinguli – gyrus parahippocampalis (entorhinal area, 28) – hippocampal formation

16 Spoje hippokampální formace Connections of the hippocampal formation Afferent cortical Afferent cortical Associative neocortex Associative neocortex Parahippocampal and cingular gyrus, entorhinal cortex (area 28) Parahippocampal and cingular gyrus, entorhinal cortex (area 28) Olfactory cortex Olfactory cortex Afferent subcortical Afferent subcortical Amygdala Amygdala Thalamus (MD, ncc. mediani) Thalamus (MD, ncc. mediani) Hypothalamus Hypothalamus Septum verum Septum verum Efferent cortical Efferent cortical Subiculum – area 28, parahippocampal gyrus – associative cortical areas Subiculum – area 28, parahippocampal gyrus – associative cortical areas Efferent subcortical Efferent subcortical Fornix Fornix Hypothalamus (mamillary nuclei) Hypothalamus (mamillary nuclei) Thalamus (ant. ncc.) Thalamus (ant. ncc.) Septum verum Septum verum Ventral striatum Ventral striatum amygdala amygdala

17 Neocortex – hippokampální formace Primární sensorická oblast (SI, AI, VI) Primární sensorická oblast (SI, AI, VI) Asociační korová oblast (SII, A II, VII) Asociační korová oblast (SII, A II, VII) Gyrus cinguli, g. parahippocampalis (area 28, 35, 36) Gyrus cinguli, g. parahippocampalis (area 28, 35, 36) Hippocampus Hippocampus

18 Funkce hippokampální formace Korové asociační oblasti - hippokampální formace – limbické struktury (septum, hypothalamus, amygdala) Korové asociační oblasti - hippokampální formace – limbické struktury (septum, hypothalamus, amygdala) Učení a paměť Učení a paměť Schopnost se učit a pamatovat si slova, čísla, fakta, místa, tváře Schopnost se učit a pamatovat si slova, čísla, fakta, místa, tváře Poškození – ztráta paměti (amnesia, anterográdní, CA 1) Poškození – ztráta paměti (amnesia, anterográdní, CA 1) Hippokampální formace – proces učení a vytváření paměťových stop Hippokampální formace – proces učení a vytváření paměťových stop Nemá význam pro uchovávání dlouhodobé paměti (neocortex, thalamus ?) Nemá význam pro uchovávání dlouhodobé paměti (neocortex, thalamus ?) Hippokampální „ place cells „ - mění aktivitu v souvislosti se změnami v okolí Hippokampální „ place cells „ - mění aktivitu v souvislosti se změnami v okolí Intrahippokampální navigační mapy Intrahippokampální navigační mapy

19 Functions of the hippocampal formation Cortical association areas – Hippocampal formation – other limbic structures (septum, hypothalamus, amygdala Cortical association areas – Hippocampal formation – other limbic structures (septum, hypothalamus, amygdala Learning and memory Learning and memory The ability to learn and remember words, faces, places, events The ability to learn and remember words, faces, places, events Damage = Loss of memory (amnesia, anterograde, CA 1) Damage = Loss of memory (amnesia, anterograde, CA 1) Hippocampal formation is important for the process of learning or forming of the memory traces Hippocampal formation is important for the process of learning or forming of the memory traces Hippocampus is not important for the long-term storage of informations (long-term memory) – neocortex, thalamus ? Hippocampus is not important for the long-term storage of informations (long-term memory) – neocortex, thalamus ? Hippocampal „ place cells“ – the firing of single hippocampal cells changes with position of animal in relation to its surroundings (different corners of the cage) Hippocampal „ place cells“ – the firing of single hippocampal cells changes with position of animal in relation to its surroundings (different corners of the cage) Intrahippocampal navigation maps Intrahippocampal navigation maps

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21 SEPTUM VERUM AMYGDALA, NUCLEUS BASALIS

22 SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM SEPTUM VERUM ( septal nuclei Ch 1, Ch 2) NC. BASALIS Ch 4 – group of cholinergic neurons projecting to the neocortex and to the amygdala

23 SEPTUM VERUM Reciproké spoje s hippocampem, hypothalamem, s gyrus cinguli Reciproké spoje s hippocampem, hypothalamem, s gyrus cinguli Efferentní spoje do thalamu a amygdaly Efferentní spoje do thalamu a amygdaly Cholinergní neurony (Ch1, Ch2) projikující do hippocampu Cholinergní neurony (Ch1, Ch2) projikující do hippocampu Stimulace vyvolává agresivní chování Stimulace vyvolává agresivní chování Lese - redukce agresivity Lese - redukce agresivity

24 Amygdala, amygdalar complex - spoje

25 Amygdala (amygdalar nuclei) - connections Corticomedial nuclei - receive afferents from olfactory bulb, olfactory cortex, hypothalamus, septum Corticomedial nuclei - receive afferents from olfactory bulb, olfactory cortex, hypothalamus, septum Basolateral nuclei - receive afferents from the thalamus and parts of the cerebral cortex (prefrontal, temporal ) Basolateral nuclei - receive afferents from the thalamus and parts of the cerebral cortex (prefrontal, temporal ) Efferent connections – hypothalamus (stria terminalis, VM), thalamus (MD), hippocampal formation (28, subiculum), septal nuclei, ventral striatum, prefrontal and temporal cortex, brain stem nuclei (SGC, RF, parasympathetic cranial nerve nuclei. Efferent connections – hypothalamus (stria terminalis, VM), thalamus (MD), hippocampal formation (28, subiculum), septal nuclei, ventral striatum, prefrontal and temporal cortex, brain stem nuclei (SGC, RF, parasympathetic cranial nerve nuclei.

26 Amygdala – functions I. Stimulation Stimulation Corticomedial group – salivation, licking, chewing, emptying of the rectum and the bladder Corticomedial group – salivation, licking, chewing, emptying of the rectum and the bladder Basolateral group – increased attention, stopping of motor activity, arousal, fear (+ autonomic reactions), rage Basolateral group – increased attention, stopping of motor activity, arousal, fear (+ autonomic reactions), rage In humans – feeling of anxiety, fear, hallucinations In humans – feeling of anxiety, fear, hallucinations Amygdala is frequently focus of epileptic seizures !! Amygdala is frequently focus of epileptic seizures !! Destruction Destruction Reduction of aggressivity and defensive reactions Reduction of aggressivity and defensive reactions Reduction or loss of emotional reactions Reduction or loss of emotional reactions

27 Amygdala functions II. Amygdala is involved in learning (remembering) whether something is „ good „ or „ bad “. Amygdala is involved in learning (remembering) whether something is „ good „ or „ bad “. Amygdala differenciates a dangerous and nondangerous signals. Amygdala differenciates a dangerous and nondangerous signals.

28 VELKÉ MEDIÁTOROVÉ SYSTÉMY MAJOR NEUROTRANSMITTER SYSTEMS

29 Cholinergic system

30 Cholinergní group target structure Cholinergní group target structure Ch 1, Ch 2 hippokampus Ch 1, Ch 2 hippokampus Septum verum Septum verum Ch 3 bulbus olfactorius Ch 3 bulbus olfactorius Area diagonalis Area diagonalis Ch 4 neocortex, amygdala Ch 4 neocortex, amygdala Nucleus basalis Nucleus basalis Ch 5, Ch 6 thalamus Ch 5, Ch 6 thalamus RF RF Ach augments the excitability of cortical neurons, improves circulation, supports memory mechanism Ach augments the excitability of cortical neurons, improves circulation, supports memory mechanism

31 Dopaminergic pathways Noradrenergic pathways Serotoninergic pathways

32 Dopaminergic system Substantia nigra, pars compacta - A 9 Substantia nigra, pars compacta - A 9 Area tegmentalis ventralis (VTA), - A 10 Area tegmentalis ventralis (VTA), - A 10 Striatum Striatum Globus pallidus Globus pallidus Neocortex Neocortex Decrease - Parkinsonismus Decrease - Parkinsonismus

33 Noradrenergic system Locus coeruleus - A 7 Locus coeruleus - A 7 Spinal cord Spinal cord Brain stem – cranial nerves sensitive nuclei (nc. V.) Brain stem – cranial nerves sensitive nuclei (nc. V.) Cerebellum – Purkyně cells Cerebellum – Purkyně cells Hypothalamus Hypothalamus Thalamus (nc. VPL, nc. VPM, corpora geniculata Thalamus (nc. VPL, nc. VPM, corpora geniculata Neocortex, Hippocampal formation Neocortex, Hippocampal formation Part of the ascending activation system of the RF Part of the ascending activation system of the RF Regulation of transmision of sensory signbals (pain, posterior horns of the spiunal cord) Regulation of transmision of sensory signbals (pain, posterior horns of the spiunal cord) Regulation of circulation Regulation of circulation Essential to feel emergized Essential to feel emergized Without NA – you feel exhausted, tired, without energy Without NA – you feel exhausted, tired, without energy

34 Serotoninergní systém Rapheální jádra RF Rapheální jádra RF Vzestupný a sestupný systém Vzestupný a sestupný systém Všechny korové formace, Limbický systém, Striatum, thalamus, hypothalamus, mozkový kmen, mícha Všechny korové formace, Limbický systém, Striatum, thalamus, hypothalamus, mozkový kmen, mícha Aktivita vzestupného systému –změny nálady Aktivita vzestupného systému –změny nálady Aktivita sestupného systému – analgesie Aktivita sestupného systému – analgesie Snížení synthésy - deprese, podrážděnost, poruchy spánku, insomnie Snížení synthésy - deprese, podrážděnost, poruchy spánku, insomnie Nadměrně zvýšená hladina (serotoninový syndrom – třes, zvýšení TK, zrychlení akce srdeční, zmatenost, bezvědomí) Nadměrně zvýšená hladina (serotoninový syndrom – třes, zvýšení TK, zrychlení akce srdeční, zmatenost, bezvědomí) Sluneční osvit – zvyšuje produkci ( v zimě deprese,podráždění, úzkostné stavy) Sluneční osvit – zvyšuje produkci ( v zimě deprese,podráždění, úzkostné stavy)

35 SEROTONINERGIC SYSTEM Reticular formation (rapheal nuclei) Reticular formation (rapheal nuclei) Ascending and descending systems Ascending and descending systems All cortical formations, Limbic system, Basal ganglia, Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Brain stem, Spinal cord All cortical formations, Limbic system, Basal ganglia, Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Brain stem, Spinal cord Activity in descending system = analgesia Activity in descending system = analgesia Decrease of synthesis- depression, irritability, sleep disorders, insomnia Decrease of synthesis- depression, irritability, sleep disorders, insomnia Increase of synthesis – tremor, increase of blood pressure anf heart rate, confusion, unconsciousness Increase of synthesis – tremor, increase of blood pressure anf heart rate, confusion, unconsciousness Sun lighting – increases production (winter depression, irritability, anxiety) Sun lighting – increases production (winter depression, irritability, anxiety)

36 Glutamatergic system Excitatory neurotransmitter Excitatory neurotransmitter Majority of ascending and descending pathways Majority of ascending and descending pathways All descending cortical pathways (corticostriatal, corticothalamic, corticospinal) All descending cortical pathways (corticostriatal, corticothalamic, corticospinal) Descending brain stem pathways Descending brain stem pathways Efferent cerebellar pathways (dentato – thalamic) Efferent cerebellar pathways (dentato – thalamic) Commissural pathways (corpus callosum) Commissural pathways (corpus callosum) Associative cortical pathways Associative cortical pathways

37 GABAergic system GABA - Inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA - Inhibitory neurotransmitter Local interneurons ( neocortex, hippocampus, thalamic nuclei, cerebellar cortex) Local interneurons ( neocortex, hippocampus, thalamic nuclei, cerebellar cortex) Striatal efferent projections Striatal efferent projections Globus pallidus – efferent projections Globus pallidus – efferent projections Purkyně cells projections Purkyně cells projections

38 Nitric oxide Gaseous neurotransmitter Gaseous neurotransmitter Produced by NOSynthasis Produced by NOSynthasis Neuronal, endothelial, inducible Neuronal, endothelial, inducible 200 µm = 2 millions of synaptic contacts 200 µm = 2 millions of synaptic contacts Local interneurons Local interneurons NO – increases releasing of neurotransmitters NO – increases releasing of neurotransmitters Vasodilatation !!! (endothelial NOS) Vasodilatation !!! (endothelial NOS) Damage of neurons (neurodegenerative diseases) Damage of neurons (neurodegenerative diseases)

39 Cévní zásobení mozku Vasculature of the CNS

40 Vertebrobasilar system

41 Circle of Willis Vertebrobasilary + carotic systems

42 The Circle of Willis Communication between vertebral and a. carotis interna systems Communication between vertebral and a. carotis interna systems Anterior and posterior communicating arteries allow blood to flow between both systems (PCA) or between right and left vessels (ACA) Anterior and posterior communicating arteries allow blood to flow between both systems (PCA) or between right and left vessels (ACA)

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44 CT – AG, 3-D

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53 Longitudinal system Segmental (radicular) system

54 Liquor cerebrospinalis Produced by the choroid plexus Ventricles and subarachnoid space 140 ml Physical support of the brain (floats within the fluid) Channel for chemical communication within the CNS (neurons- fluid- walls of ventricles – neurons)

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57 Dural sheaths

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59 CEREBRAL VENTRICLES

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62 MRI – T2

63 Ventriculus lateralis – pars centralis 3rd ventricle

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65 Ventriculus lateralis – cornu temporale

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67 Děkuji za pozornost

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