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7 Evoluce 2015 Buňky. hypercycklus M. Eigen K buňkám.

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Prezentace na téma: "7 Evoluce 2015 Buňky. hypercycklus M. Eigen K buňkám."— Transkript prezentace:

1 7 Evoluce 2015 Buňky

2 hypercycklus M. Eigen


4 K buňkám





9 LUCA Last Universal Common Ancestor

10 Katalytická uzávěra (catalytic closure) versus společenstvo buněk Molekulární a podbuněčné procesy mohou patrně probíhat jen do určité velikosti (objemu). Proto buňky nejsou obrovské. Solaris Komunikace buněk při formování mnohobuněčných společenstev většinou není založena na metabolitech, ale na strukturách symbolických (hormony, feromony, mezibuněčná hmota apod.) Není to k žrádlu Symbiózy jsou založeny na komunikaci symbolické, symbiózy na základě prolomení katalytické uzávěry jsou vzácné: chloroplasty a mitochondrie

11 Tradiční pohled: Archebakterie sesterskou linií eukaryot


13 Ecological differentiation in recombining microbial populations. (A) Example genealogy of neutral marker genes sampled from the population(s) at different times. (B) Underlying model of ecological differentiation. Thin gray or black arrows represent recombination within or between ecologically associated populations. Thick colored arrows represent acquisition of adaptive alleles for red or green habitats. Shapiro et al. Science 2012: 336, 48-51



16 Global tree of eukaryotes from a consensus of phylogenetic evidence (in particular, phylogenomics), rare genomic signatures, and morphological characteristics. Fabien Burki Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2014;6:a ©2014 by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press

17 Figure 1.Figure 1. Committing steps in the biosynthesis of membrane lipids. The "primary divide" separating Archaea from Bacteria and Eukarya is outlined. Glansdorff et al 2008 Biology Direct 2008, 3:29

18 (1) The word "prokaryote" has become inadequate and misleading. (2) Eukaryotic idiosyncrasies and a reappraisal of phylogeny do not support the notion of a prokaryotic LUCA nor of prokaryotic ancestors of the eukaryotic cell body. The order of branching in the universal tree has no bearing on the cellular architecture of LUCA.

19 (7) Archaea arose by reductive evolution under selection for adaptation to high temperatures; this entailed the replacement of sn1,2 ester fatty acid lipid by sn2,3 ether isoprenoid lipids in the cell membrane, without major enzymatic reconversion. (8) Bacteria arose by reductive evolution; secondary, convergent adaptations to thermophily entailed the formation of a variety of membrane lipids, often with ether bonds, but still with a sn1,2 stereoconfiguration.

20 (9) LUCA was genetically redundant; therefore the differential loss of paralogous gene copies in different lines of descent is a predicted source of phylogenetic discrepancies with respect to the SSU-rRNA tree.

21 (3) LUCA was a protoeukaryote, with a RNA genome inherited from its progenote ancestor. This RNA LUCA was in a metabolically and morphologically heterogeneous community, constantly shuffling around genetic material. Part of it was phagotrophic. LUCA remained an evolutionary entity, though loosely defined and constantly changing, as long as this promiscuity lasted. (4) The RNA to DNA transition took place independently in different lineages of this community; the intervention of viruses appears a likely mechanism. This process led to the emergence of the three Domains.

22 Glansdorff et al 2008 Biology Direct 2008, 3:29

23 E.V. Koonin: vývoj buněk z pradávného světa virů Např. Biology Direct 1, 29, Biological big bang Biol. Direct 2,21,2007

24 Viry v prostředí: obrovská diverzita (statisíce) „virioplankton: částic/ml metagenomika Luis Villareal: Can viruses make us human? (scifi: Greg Bear: Darwinovo rádio)






30 Protist 155, 3, 2004

31 Bhattacharya BioEssays 26, 50, 2003




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