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2014 BACTERIA AND ALGAE Výukový materiál MB 04 - 99 Tvůrce: Mgr. Šárka Vopěnková Tvůrce anglické verze: ThMgr. Ing. Jiří Foller Projekt: S anglickým jazykem.

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Prezentace na téma: "2014 BACTERIA AND ALGAE Výukový materiál MB 04 - 99 Tvůrce: Mgr. Šárka Vopěnková Tvůrce anglické verze: ThMgr. Ing. Jiří Foller Projekt: S anglickým jazykem."— Transkript prezentace:

1 2014 BACTERIA AND ALGAE Výukový materiál MB Tvůrce: Mgr. Šárka Vopěnková Tvůrce anglické verze: ThMgr. Ing. Jiří Foller Projekt: S anglickým jazykem do dalších předmětů Registrační číslo: CZ.1.07/1.1.36/ Tento projekt je spolufinancován ESF a SR ČR

2 STRUCTURE OF BACTERIAL CELL

3  spherical shape = cocci  diplococci  chains – streptococci  grape-like formations (clusters) – staphylococci  stick-shaped form– sticks  bacilli:  stick-shaped bacteria  the have got spores inside  resistant against adverse influences SHAPES OF BACTERIA

4

5 DESCRIBE SHAPES OF BACTERIA

6  loosely placed only one DNA  circular  DNA = one chromosome = nucleoid  it carries about genes  nucleoid attached to the cytoplasmic membrane in 2 places STRUCTURE OF BACTERIA - DNA

7  asexually > transversal binary division 1. one circular DNA duplicates 2. 2 identic copies originate 3. the cell grows 4. plasmatic membrane infolds 5. division of mother cell into two daughter cells  the same genetic information REPRODUCTION OF BACTERIA

8 TRANSVERSE DIVISION

9 DESCRIBE THE PICTURE

10  bacteria have lived on the Earth for 3,5 billion years  in the soil, water, air, in bodies of animals and plants  they need energy and a source of carbon:  phototrophic bacteria: they use the solar energy  chemotrophic: they gain the energy from the oxidation of chemical substances  autotrophic: source of carbon from CO 2  heterotrophic: source of carbon from organic substances NUTRITION

11 1 ) phototrophic bacteria  they use solar energy  photosynthesis >> the source of hydrogen is not the water but hydrogen sulphide or directly molecular hydrogen!!  they never release oxygen like green plants and algae  photo-autotrophic bacteria : as the source of carbon is used carbon dioxide  photo-heterotrophic bacteria : as the source of carbon is used organic substances CLASSIFICATION OF BACTERIA ACCORDING TO METABOLISM

12 2) chemo-trophic bacteria :  they gain energy from oxidation of organic or inorganic substances  a) chemo-autotrophic bacteria:  oxidation of inorganic substances  b) chemo-heterotrophic bacteria:  oxidation of organic substances – fermentation or respiration  most common!!!  saprophytic bacteria > they mineralize organic substances  Into inorganic accompanied by release of heat  parasitic bacteria CLASSIFICATION OF BACTERIA ACCORDING TO METABOLISM

13 1) aerobic bacteria:  they use aerobic oxygen 2) anaerobic bacteria:  without air oxygen  they gain energy from fermentation of organic substances, especially glucose = glycolysis  Lactobacillus bulgaricus  it ferments lactose into pyroracemid acid > further into lactic acid  importance in dairy industry CLASSIFICATION OF BACTERIA ACCORDING TO OXYGEN

14 obligatory anaerobic bacteria:  they permanently live without air oxygen  oxygen is for them poisonous  facultatively anaerobic:  they can live with or without oxygen CLASSIFICATION OF BACTERIA ACCORDING TO OXYGEN

15  JELÍNEK, Jan a Vladimír ZICHÁČEK. Biologie pro gymnázia: teoretická a praktická část. 2. dopl. a rozš. vyd. Olomouc: Nakladatelství Olomouc, ISBN  KUBIŠTA, Václav. Obecná biologie. Praha: Fortuna, 2000, ISBN  CHALUPOVÁ - KARLOVÁ, Vlastimila. Obecná biologie. Olomouc: Nakladatelství Olomouc, 2010, ISBN  ZÁVODSKÁ, Radka. Biologie buněk. Praha: Scientia, 2006, ISBN  ROSYPAL, Stanislav. Nový přehled biologie. 1. vyd. Praha: Scientia, 2003, 797 s. ISBN SOURCES


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