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What is the character of the experimental scientific work? Classical tem work, isolated researchers are very rare, however they bring new ideas Which institutions.

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Prezentace na téma: "What is the character of the experimental scientific work? Classical tem work, isolated researchers are very rare, however they bring new ideas Which institutions."— Transkript prezentace:

1 What is the character of the experimental scientific work? Classical tem work, isolated researchers are very rare, however they bring new ideas Which institutions are involved in the scientific research? - Universities 1.3. Scientific institutions and organizations, scientific conferences The symbiosis of pedagogical and scientific activities. Positive correlation between the quality of research and teaching. With respect to the quality of the scientific research the best universities are located in USA and UK The evaluation of the quality of the particular university might be rather relative to its original purpose. 1. Basics of research work B130P16E: Practical basics of scientific work Department of Plant Physiology FS CU RNDr. Jan Petrášek, Ph.D.

2 World University Rankings according to the quality of their research and teaching activities Harvard, Yale, Cambridge and Oxford are usually among the top Scientific institutions and organizations, scientific conferences 1. Basics of research work B130P16E: Practical basics of scientific work Department of Plant Physiology FS CU RNDr. Jan Petrášek, Ph.D.

3 World University Rankings according to the quality of their research and teaching activities Harvard, Yale, Cambridge and Oxford are usually among the top 5 Scientific research is usually inherent part of its mission 1.3. Scientific institutions and organizations, scientific conferences 1. Basics of research work B130P16E: Practical basics of scientific work Department of Plant Physiology FS CU RNDr. Jan Petrášek, Ph.D.

4 - Max Planck Society, Germany - RIKEN, Japan What is the character of the experimental scientific work? Classical tem work, isolated researchers are very rare, however they bring new ideas Which institutions are involved in the scientific research? - Specialized research institutions- In contrast to universities the empasis is on the scientific research - They are often involved in Ph.D. programes and collaborate closely with universities - Some examples of well known research institutions: - AS CR, Czech Republic - Governmental or privat research centres 1.3. Scientific institutions and organizations, scientific conferences 1. Basics of research work B130P16E: Practical basics of scientific work Department of Plant Physiology FS CU RNDr. Jan Petrášek, Ph.D.

5 Scientific team - basic building unit of every scientific institution, usually international The spectrum of particular research teams: - is the result of the existence of scientific authorities in the field - is the result of certain strategy (modern topics, applicability, etc.) The interconnection between individual teams within the institution is the crucial for the efficiency of the whole institution Scientific institutions and organizations, scientific conferences 1. Basics of research work B130P16E: Practical basics of scientific work Department of Plant Physiology FS CU RNDr. Jan Petrášek, Ph.D.

6 1.3. Scientific institutions and organizations, scientific conferences What is the structure of „healthy” research team? - Group leader - he/she is responsible for the scientific quality of the research, co-ordinates the work, usually the holder of some more important academical degree (Professor, Associated professor) - Research assistants, postdocs - represent the main „power” of the team, they are usually in their best age (untill 35 or 40), the most frequently asked temporary positions around the world - Specialists - experts in certain methods, they do not have their own scientific ambitions - Ph.D. students - they work on their thesis under the supervision of the leader or some of the postdocs, the thesis must fit into the profile of the team. - Diploma students - they work on their diploma thesis, topic might be broader - Younger students (bachelors) - temporary help with the laboratory work, very good for the orientation in the field - Laboratory technicians - essential for the keeping the lab in good shape. Sometimes the success of crucial experiments depends purely on their skills. 1. Basics of research work B130P16E: Practical basics of scientific work Department of Plant Physiology FS CU RNDr. Jan Petrášek, Ph.D.

7 1.3. Scientific institutions and organizations, scientific conferences What is the structure of „healthy” research team? The structure is not rigid, it is gradually changed depending on the improvement of the students and quality of the group leader The relationship between teacher and pupil (master/apprentice) is crucial for the transfer of knowledge 1. Basics of research work B130P16E: Practical basics of scientific work Department of Plant Physiology FS CU RNDr. Jan Petrášek, Ph.D.

8 1.3. Scientific institutions and organizations, scientific conferences What is wrong in the team profile? - Too many scientific topics or their inconsistency - The absence of students or too many students - The inability of group leader to properly lead and discuss all individual research projects in the group, it could lead to the fatal consequences (scientific frauds, overlooking mistakes, etc.) 1. Basics of research work B130P16E: Practical basics of scientific work Department of Plant Physiology FS CU RNDr. Jan Petrášek, Ph.D.

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10 1.3. Scientific institutions and organizations, scientific conferences Scientific organizations/societies - join researchers according to thir research field - their significance is often more important for the reasearch team than the interaction with other teams in the same building - ironically, the membership is often payed from the private money of the researcher Examples of the main scientific societies in the field of plant experimental biology: - FESPB - Federation of European Societies of Plant BiologistFESPB - ASPB – American Society of Plant BiologistsASPB - support of collegiality needed for the evaluation of research grants and papers, organization of conferences, etc. 1. Basics of research work B130P16E: Practical basics of scientific work Department of Plant Physiology FS CU RNDr. Jan Petrášek, Ph.D.

11 Scientific conferences - Ideal platform for the effective and fast exchange of information and experience - congresses, symposia, seminars, courses (workshops), etc. - Congresses in the field of plant experimental biology: FESPB, ASPBFESPBASPB 1. Basics of research work B130P16E: Practical basics of scientific work Department of Plant Physiology FS CU RNDr. Jan Petrášek, Ph.D Scientific institutions and organizations, scientific conferences

12 1.4. Ethical rules of scientific work Private reasons of the existence of scientific work - Creative activity, uncovering yet unexplored facts and rules, there is no manual for the solution - Research might be understood as a kind of craft - Private hobby for which one might be payed for - Making „carrier“ is usually not the reason How is the particular topic selected and determined? - Teacher example - Private interest - Public acceptance and scientific relevance – phenomenon of the „scientific fashion“ - By the provider of the money 1. Basics of research work B130P16E: Practical basics of scientific work Department of Plant Physiology FS CU RNDr. Jan Petrášek, Ph.D.

13 Na co je potřeba dbát v badatelské činnosti: - vycházet z dosavadních poznatků, falzifikací déle přijímané teorie lze učinit třeba i převratný objev - vyvarovat se opakování již objeveného - neformulovat hypotézu bez prostudování relevantní literatury - dle imatrikulačního slibu přinášet všestranný prospěch, omezit osobní zájem, pravidelně uveřejňovat své výsledky - ačkoliv typický etický kodex pro práci ve vědě neexistuje, lze alespoň shrnout pár důležitých pravidel: - respektování priority vědeckého objevu - nepřivlastňování si myšlenek a výsledků - neupravování a nezamlčování výsledků - důsledné uznávání podílu kolegů 1. Basics of research work B130P16E: Practical basics of scientific work Department of Plant Physiology FS CU RNDr. Jan Petrášek, Ph.D Ethical rules of scientific work

14 Nejčastější nešvary: - záměrná ignorace poznaného - zatajování myšlenkového zdroje - „vhodná“ úprava výsledků - třeba zamlčením nejasností - předčasné zveřejnění či opakovaná publikace téhož - předstírání praktické aplikovatelnosti - krádež nápadů z projektů a návrhů kolegů - humorné shrnutí nešvarů na zargon/ - vystihuje docela dobře občasnou realituhttp://texts.gr1ff1n.net/vedecky- zargon/ 1. Basics of research work B130P16E: Practical basics of scientific work Department of Plant Physiology FS CU RNDr. Jan Petrášek, Ph.D.

15 Spin off companies 1. Basics of research work B130P16E: Practical basics of scientific work Department of Plant Physiology FS CU RNDr. Jan Petrášek, Ph.D Financing of the scientific research

16 1. Základní pravidla fungování vědecké práce Spin off companies B130P16E: Practical basics of scientific work Department of Plant Physiology FS CU RNDr. Jan Petrášek, Ph.D Financing of the scientific research

17 Grant projects: Student, doctoral, starting or junior research projects - for one to three years, young student or freshly graduated scientists - Standard research propjects - the most frequent form, three to five years. - Specialized projects - travel or publication expenses - Integration projects - interconnection of several research groups, at least five years. Overlap with the classical reseach projects. 1. Basics of research work B130P16E: Practical basics of scientific work Department of Plant Physiology FS CU RNDr. Jan Petrášek, Ph.D Financing of the scientific research

18 -Integration projects - interconnection of several research groups, at least five years. Overlap with the classical reseach projects. 1. Basics of research work B130P16E: Practical basics of scientific work Department of Plant Physiology FS CU RNDr. Jan Petrášek, Ph.D Financing of the scientific research

19 Grant agencies: - Local (internal) Grant Agency - serves as a money-distributing organization in the frame of certain institution - The grant agency of the Charles University (GAUK; in Czech, in English students and employees are eligible for proposals here - The grant agency of the Academy of Sciences of the CR, opened to broader scientific communityhttp://www.cuni.cz/UK-33.htmlhttp://www.cuni.cz/UKENG-33.htmlhttp://www.gaav.cz/en/ - Grant agency belonging to certain ministry (governmental) - support of research and development in certain research area (education, medicine, agriculture, culture, etc.) - Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports in Czech, in English supports mainly huge, collaborative projectshttp://www.msmt.cz/vyzkum/pro-odbornikyhttp://www.msmt.cz/research-and-development-1 1. Basics of research work B130P16E: Practical basics of scientific work Department of Plant Physiology FS CU RNDr. Jan Petrášek, Ph.D.

20 1.5. Financing of the scientific research Grant agencies: - State Grant Agency - independent agency supported directly from the budget (separate chapter), all research areas are covered - The Czech Science Foundation - supports research projects submitted by individuals or organizations in all research areas - National Science Foundation (NSF; the biggest and the best organized grant agency in the USAThe Czech Science Foundationhttp://www.nsf.gov 1. Basics of research work B130P16E: Practical basics of scientific work Department of Plant Physiology FS CU RNDr. Jan Petrášek, Ph.D. - International Grant Agency - founded in the frame EU convergence in the area of scientific research - CORDIS (Community research and development Information Service; - European research council (ERC) recently founded agency supporting individual scientists all around EUhttp://cordis.europa.eu/http://erc.europa.eu

21 1.6. Writing scientific projects and grant proposals, basic rules Consider which type of the project will be the most suitable at the moment, choose the grant agency Strictly keep formal requisites - project proposals are often eliminated before scientific evaluation, just because formal defects Constitute a functional team - project feasibility is guaranteed by the research institution - proposal text is similar to scientific paper, it contains expected results, the judgment of possible practical applications and financial demands Example of the scientific proposal herehere Evaluation of the proposal - committee of specialist selects opponents according to the topic of the proposal. Opponents are always anonymous. 1. Basics of research work B130P16E: Practical basics of scientific work Department of Plant Physiology FS CU RNDr. Jan Petrášek, Ph.D.

22 Successful proposals are granted, financially supported, applicants turn to be solvers and their research institutions holders of the particular project. Reports about the progress of the project is needed every year. The outcomes of the particular project are scientific papers or patents - grant agencies strictly control how the solver publish his/her results - in case of bad outcome (no papers, no patents) the scientist has problems with all subsequent proposals - Scientific projects are all registered in the CR at the pages of Research and Development Council (http://www.vyzkum.cz/Default.aspx?lang=en)http://www.vyzkum.cz/Default.aspx?lang=en 1. Basics of research work B130P16E: Practical basics of scientific work Department of Plant Physiology FS CU RNDr. Jan Petrášek, Ph.D Writing scientific projects and grant proposals, basic rules

23 Průvodce vědeckým žargonem (ke snímku 14) : "je již dlouho známo" = nezjistil jsem si původní pramen "projevuje se tu určitý trend" = tyto údaje jsou v podstatě bezcenné "ačkoliv nebylo možné přinést na tyto otázky jednoznačnou odpověď" = pokus se nezdařil. ale i tak doufám, že jej budu moci publikovat "k podrobnému studiu byly vybrány tři vzorky" = ostatní výsledky nedávaly smysl "typické výsledky jsou zobrazeny" = tenhle graf se mi obzvláště vyvedl "tyto výsledky budou obsahem příští studie" = jednou se snad do ní pustím, jestli mě k tomu někdo dokope / poskytne finanční prostředky "z vlastní zkušenosti" = jednou "v několika případech" = dvakrát "v řadě případů" = třikrát "panuje názor" = já si myslím "panuje všeobecný názor" = pár kolegů si to myslí taky "platný v řádu daných veličin" = neplatný "podle statistického průzkumu" = říká se "statisticky vyjádřený odhad významu těchto zjištění" = pustý dohad "pečlivá analýza dosažitelných údajů" = tři stránky poznámek se mi rozpily, když sem si na ně zvrhl pivo "je jasné že bude třeba vykonat ještě mnoho další práce, než budeme schopni porozumět tomuto jevu v jeho úplnosti" = já mu nerozumím "po následné práci mých kolegů" = ani oni mu nerozumějí "Děkuji Joe Blotzovi za asistenci při pokusu a André Schafferové za přínosné konzultace" = Blotz udělal práci a Schafferová mi vysvětlila, o co jde "nesmírně významná oblast výzkumné práce" = naprosto zbytečný úkol, který mi zadala komise "doufám že tato studie podnítí další výzkum v dané oblasti" = já s tím končím


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