3 DISCUSSIONWhat is physics about?What do we use it for?Is physics a popular subject? Why? Why not?What is condensation?What do you know about gases?What is a water cycle?Why does water change its form?What is light?Does light travel?Is light visible when it travels?What do you know about the energy of the Sun?Does it influence our planet anyhow?Is solar energy used anyhow?What kinds of energy do you know? Where does it come from?How would you define a „magnet“?How are liquids and solids different?What happends when the light shines on a mirror?What is magnetism?What is „Celsius“?What is a „closed circuit“ good for?Is there any difference between pushing and pulling?What happens to liquids when they evaporate? Why do they evaporate?Can you name some sources of light?Can energy be stored? How?What is „distance“? How is it counted?Is speed always measured in kilometres?What is termal energy?What is acceleration and what is its function in physics?Why do astronauts „float“ in the space?Why is radiation harmful?What kind of rays do you know?Are waves always connected with water?What do we measure with WATTS?What is the relationship between Kcal and kJ?Can energy be destroyed?What is conduction?How is thermal energy transferred?What is „echo“?
4 metre kilogram second ampere kelvin candela Basic units of measurement – can you match the units?Length a) Kelvin (K)Mass b) Candela (Cd)Time c) Ampere (A)Electric Charge d) Second (s)Temperature e) Metre (m)Luminenscent Intensity f) Kilogram (kg)metrekilogramsecondamperekelvincandelaUnits of measurement – try to explain the use of these units and give examplesFrequency / HertzForce, Weight / NewtonWork, Heat / JoulePower / WattPressure / PascalIlluminance / LuxElectric charge of flux / CoulombElectrical potential difference, Electromotive force / VoltElectric resistance, Impedance, Reactance / OhmElectric capacitance / FaradMagnetic flux / WeberMagnetic flux density, magnetic induction / TeslaThermodynamic temperature / Degree CelsiusCan you complete this chart? Some information has already been giventera T 1012G 109megak 103decicmilli mµnanoptera T1012giga G 109mega M 106kilo k 103deci d 10-1centi c 10-2milli m 10-3micro µ 10-6nano n10-9pico p10-12
5 Physics – links http://www.physics.org/ - populární fyzika - svět fyziky- fyzika ve třídě- fyzika a její odvětví- moderní fyzika- fyzikální hry pro děti- zajímavé fyzikální jevy- učitel fyziky- fyzika – zdroje- jak učit fyziku- fyzika – materiály– výuka fyziky- jednoduché vysvětlení pro děti- fyzikální jednotky a jednotky SI- jednotky a předpony čísel- moderní fyzika- fyzika pro děti a pracovní sešity
7 http://www. shutterstock ALBERT EINSTEINWhere was he from? Why did he become so famous?What does „E=mc2“ mean?Why did he move from Germany to the USA?Did he take part in the „Manhattan Project“? What was it?Einstein was interested in relativity – what kinds of relativity do you know and why was relativity important for him?What did he think of „wormholes“? What is it and what do scientists think about it?Are there any famous experiments he took part in?ISAAC NEWTONDo you know anything about his life? What do you know about the period of time he lived in?He was interested in optics and telescopes, what do you know about it?Can you say something about Newton and his relationship to space, gravity and other planets?Can you breafly describe what the „Laws or motion“ are about?What is the practical use of Newton´s teaching?What do we measure with „Newtons“?What was scientific revolution and why is Newton considered a key figure?MARIE SKLODOWSKA – CURIEWhat did she become famous for?Which elements did she discover and can you mention their positive and negative impact on society?What do you know about her personal life? Was it influenced by her work anyhow?Why did she get the Nobel price?Was her husband famous too? For what?
8 http://www. shutterstock ROBERT OPPENHEIMERWhat was the most important discovery of his life? Can you explain what was his discovery used for, what effects did it have and what were the consequences?How do you think he felt when he learned about Hiroshima and Nagasaki?Can you think of more scientiscs who invented something amazing but in the end it was abused or used in a completely different way?STEPHEN HAWKINGDo you know anything about this scientist? Why is he famous?Do you know anything about his physical condition?Hawking is fascinated by black holes and other objects in space. Do you think that one day it will be possible to travel in space, time and live on space ships just like they do in the TV series?Which things do you think will never be possible?Hawking writes books for children and public – do you think people are interested in physics? How can teachers make physics attractive and interesting for children?WILHELM RÖNTGENWhat did he invent?How did his invention change modern medicine?Where is his invention used and what would happen if he had never invented it?Does his invention harm people as well? How? When? Why?What kinds of “rays” do you know and what are they used for? Are any of them hamrful as well?
9 Famous physicists - links - slavní fyzikové- odkazy na slavné fyziky- biografie a videa slavných fyziků- stránky Nobelovy ceny- Einsteinův život- Einsteinovy citáty- Newton a jeho život- informace a teze Isaaca Newtona- život Marie Curie- Radioaktivita- oficiální stránky Stephena Hawkinga- Röntgen a jeho život- rozcestník známých vědců
11 DiscussionWhat is a lever?How does it work?Can you think of some everyday situations when levels are used?Do animals know this principle?Does the amount of work change when you use the lever or use your own physical power?What is the inclined plane?What is it used for?Can you give any practical examples?Have you ever used it? How? When?Can you finish this sentence .. „The steeper the plane is the more difficult it is to “People say that inclined plane was used for building the Pyramids in Egypt. What do you think about it and can you explain the use of the plane during the building? What in general do you think about the pay the Pyramids were built?How old do you think wheels are?What were they used for during ancient times?What are the wheels used for now?Can you imagine life without wheels? How would your life change?What is a screw? What does it look like?When can we find them and are they important?Which of these machines were invented by Archimedes?What is a wedge?What is a pulley?Use these words in sentences and explain themSLOPE WOODEN FORCE LIGHT HEAVY TOOL WINDMILL WHEEL SCREW ARCHIMEDES INVENT MECHANISM MATERIAL LIFT BOTTLE OPENER FORCE DIRECTION SPIRAL FLAT ROUND OPEN BUILT PYRAMIND ANCIENT TIMES PULL PUSH WEIGHT ROPE SCREWDRIVER PRINT TURN ARTIFICIAL
12 USING A HAMMER TO PULL OUT A NAIL Solve these tasksWhich of these activities are examples of using a lever? Circle them and comment what happens during these activitiesUSING A HAMMER TO PULL OUT A NAILUSING A BOTTLE-OPENER TO OPEN A BEER BOTTLEUSING A BLENDER FOR MAKING A COCTAILUSING A SCREWDRIVER TO PRY THE LID OFF A CAN OF PAINTA PAIR OF SCISSORSOPENING A WINDOWUSING A BALANCE SCALE TO WEIGH THINGSCHANGING THE TIREPLAYING ON A SEE-SAWWhich is not an example of a simple machine?screw – pulley – fulcrum - inclined planeA nail can be hammered into a piece of wood, but a bolt cannot. What simple machine can be found at the point of a nail?wheel and axle - inclined plane - lever - wedgeA seesaw is an example of what simple machine?wedge – lever - iclined plane - screw5. In a second class lever, the load is placed in between the fulcrum and the effort.Given this information, which of the following is NOT a second class lever?bottle opener - fishing rod - nut cracker - paper cutter A pulley is most closely related to which other simple machine?lever – screw - inclined plane - wheel and axle7. What type of simple machine is a mountain road?lever – wedge - inclined plane - wheel - axle Which of the following best explains why lifting a heavy object with a singlepulley and rope makes the task seem easier?less force is needed to lift the object - less work is done when moving theobject - the direction of the force required to lift the object is changed - theforce needed to move the object is applied over a greater distanceUsing a hammer to pull out a nailUsing a bottle-opener to open a beer bottleusing a screwdriver to pry the lid off a can of paintA pair of scissorsUsing a balance scale to weigh thingsplaying on a see-sawDiscussion – simple machines and youWhen are simple machines taught at the basic school?Is it easy for the children to understand it?What examples do you use for each machine?How do you test the students´ knowledge?Do you mention Archimedes and the Pyramids in your lessons?
13 Simple machines - links - jednoduché nástroje, vysvětlení- nástroje a obrázky- video pro děti, nástroje a jejich využití- praktické ukázky, hýbající se obrázky- druhy a formy jednoduchých nástrojů- videa jednotlivých nástrojů- vědecké hry pro děti- příklady jednoduchých přístrojů okolo nás– video základních přístrojů- výuka jednoduchých přístrojů online
15 DiscusstionHow do we read time in English?Why do people need to know time?What would happen if people didn´t know time?What kind of clock do you know?How do we read dates in English?How do we read years and centuries in English?What is a calendar?What parts does a calendar have and why do some years have 366 days?Is time relative?Who is the author of the theory of relativity and what is it?How many seconds are there in one minute?How many minutes are there in one hour?How many seasons as there in one year?How many months are there in one year?Do you know any other time units of measurement ?How old is our planet? How are such things counted?Some people speak about the „Big Bang“. What is it and what did it mean for our planet?What do you know about mechanical clocks? When were they invented? How did they change our lives?What is a pendulum? What purpose does it have?What is the difference between subjective and objective understanding of time?Some scientists say that the fourth-dimension means time. Do you agree?Einstein said that „time is only an illusion“. What did he mean by that?Can you comment human perception of time vs. ...BIRTH AND DEATHAGINGFUTUREPASTMEMORIESKNOWN AND UNKNOWN THINGSMOTIONSUBJECTIVE FEELINGPLEASANT AND UNPLEASANT FEELINGSRELATIVITY OF PRESENCE
16 These were the biggest discoveries in physics during the time – can you comment them? How did they change people´s lives?240 BC Archimedes discovers his principle of buoyancy.1514 Nicolaus Copernicus develops his heliocentric theory.1592 Galileo Galilei invents the thermometer.1604 Galileo Galilei proves that falling bodies are accelerated towards the ground at a constant rate.1651 Blaise Pascal shows that pressure applied at one point in a liquid is transmitted unchanged to all points in the liquid.1668 Isaac Newton designs and builds a reflecting telescope.1714 Gabriel Fahrenheit introduces the mercury thermometer and his new scale of temperature.1800 Alessandro Volta invents the battery.1822 André Ampère shows that two wires carrying electric currents attract each other.1898 Ernest Rutherford discovers alpha and beta radiation.1909 Robert Millikan measures the charge on the electron.1948 John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley invent the transistor.Time – discussionHow can the Sun help us to measure time?How can the stars help us to measure time?What is an „Obelisk“ and how is it connected to time?Is there anything like „water clock“?What is the difference between mechanical and digital clock?What is the difference between wall clock and pocket clock? What do they look like?What is atomic clock?Why would pendulum clock never work on a ship?Why is there summer in Europe while there is winter in Australia?What is a „time zone“? Why and when is it important?What is a „timeline“? When is it used?Could Galileo and Copernicus meet each other?Can you compare Mayan calendar and our European calendar?With the decimal system, everything is divided into tens. However, minutes are 1/60 of an hour, and seconds are 1/60 of a minute. To which ancient civilization do we owe this division?
17 Time in physics and astrology - links - čas ve fyzice- co je to čas a naše vnímání času- fyzické dohady a nejasnosti- co je to čas?- čas ve fyzice od Einsteina- čas a systémy měření- starověká astronomie- druhy „času“- novinky ze světa vědy a fyziky- fyzika vs. astrofyzika- problém času v astronomii- Einstein vs. čas– časový paradox– video – čas v kvantové mechanice
19 How would you explain these forms of energy How would you explain these forms of energy? Can you give examples as well?Kinetic ________________________________________________Chemical ________________________________________________Electric ________________________________________________Magnetic ________________________________________________Radiant ________________________________________________Nuclear ________________________________________________Elastic ________________________________________________Sound ________________________________________________Thermal ________________________________________________Gravitational ________________________________________________What kind of energy is produced during these activities?Riding a roller-coasterPhotosynthesisCyclist using a dynamoSpacecraft landing on MoonOxidationClappingPlaying billiardsDigestion of foodBurningSwitching on a generatorFlowing waterHaving an X-rayFeeling the warmth of a campfire on your faceSnapping your fingersRunningKicking the soccer ballDiscussionWhat is energy? Who invented it?When did people start to be interested in energy?How is energy „created“?How is it stored?How is it distributed?Is it dangerous anyhow?
20 Can you comment these pictures and their relationship to energy? 1)2)3)4)5)6)7)8)9)10)11)12)13)14)15)16)Energy in contextHow is the term „energy“ used in chemistry?What kind of energy do we talk about in biology?What happens in a volcano before the erruption?What happens during an earthquake?How important are fats and calories in human life?What is the food chain and what kind of energy is produced during that process?What do you know about these machines that are used for producing energy? TURBINE, GENERATOR, ENGINEComment these factsIf a person yelled for 8 years, 7 months, and 6 days, he or she would produce enough energy to heat one cup of coffee.Energy cannot be destroyed or created—only transformed.The top seven oil consumers combined use more than half of the world’s total. The United States alone uses more than a quarter.Nuclear power produces around 13% of the world's electricity.Space missions have been using solar energy to power spaceships since 1958.Although the sun is over 90 million miles from the Earth, it takes less than 10 minutes for light to speed across that distance.Petroleum oil provided 18 percent of energy for electricity in 1973 and less than 1 percent in 2011.
21 Energy - links- Co je to energie? Informační rozcestník- druhy energie- vysvětlení druhů energie- fyzikální rozcestník, energie- kinetická energie- zvuková energie- přesun energie- vysvětlení energie pro děti- druhy energie, příklady a vysvětlení- elektrická energie- novinky a informace ze světa energií- zajímavá fakta o energiii
23 What energy cources are necessary in these industries? AGRICULTURETRANSPORTATIONWASTE COLLECTIONINFORMATION TECHNOLOGIESCOMMUNICATIONSPeople need a lot of devices for their life. Can you comment these devices and their use? How did they change people´s lives?DishwasherAir-conditioningComputerSewing machinePrinterSlot machineCNC machinesBrick making machineAnaesthetic machineX-ray machineWhat is the environmental impact of energy production?What are natural resources? Can you name any of them?Where are they?Why do we want them?What do we use them for?Are the reserves unlimited?What will we do when there are no natural resources?What is pollution?How can we limit it?What is the „greenhouse effect“?What causes „global warming“? Do you believe in it?What do you know about these elements: beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese, mercury, nickel and silver?What is renewable energy?What kind of powerplants do you know and which of them are the biggest pollutants?Why are there wars to get more resources?
24 How do these „issues“ influence global energetics? TERRORISM WARS RELIGIONNATURAL DISASTERACCIDENTPOLITICAL SYSTEMPOVERTYEXPORT AND IMPORTTransportWhat kinds of transport do you know?How does transport influence the environment?What kinds of fuel can means of transport use?What is the energy of the future? What do you think?How is energy transported?What is the difference between a wire and a pipeline?There are the principles of energetics. Can you explain them and comment them?Zeroth principle of energeticsIf two thermodynamic systems A and B are in thermal equilibrium, and B and C are also in thermal equilibrium, then A and C are in thermal equilibrium.First principle of energeticsThe increase in the internal energy of a system is equal to the amount of energy added to the system by heating, minus the amount lost in the form of work done by the system on its surroundings.Second principle of energeticsThe total entropy of any isolated thermodynamic system tends to increase over time, approaching a maximum value.Third principle of energeticsAs a system approaches absolute zero of temperature all processes cease and the entropy of the system approaches a minimum value or zero for the case of a perfect crystalline substance.Fourth principle of energeticsIn the field of ecological energetics H.T. Odum considered maximum power, the fourth principle of energetics. Odum also proposed the maximum empower principle as a corollary of the maximum power principle, and considered it to describe the propensities of evolutionary self-organization.Fifth principle of energeticsThe energy quality factor increases hierarchically. Flows of energy develop hierarchical webs in which inflowing energies interact and are transformed by work processes into energy forms of higher quality that feedback amplifier actions, helping to maximise the power of the system.Sixth principle of energeticsMaterial cycles have hierarchical patterns measured by the energy/mass ratio that determines its zone and pulse frequency in the energy hierarchy.TaskEach students makes up his/her own fraction or percent task and gives it to the others. Then the student explains the solution to the others.
25 Energy industry - links - definice pojmu- energetický průmysl- zprávy, energetický průmysl- vývoj celosvětové energetiky- americký energetický plán- vývoj celosvětových energií- alternativní energie a jejich preference- EU a její postoj k energiím- nové energie a trendy- energetické zprávy na CNBC- přístup vlády ČR k energiím- průmysl v ČR– analýza průmyslu ČR
27 DiscusstionWhat are some key words of „optics“?What kinds of light do you know?What are some qualities of light?What is a ray?What are some devices using light, rays and reflection?What is a magnifying glass and what is/was it used for?What do you know about history of photography and photographical devices?What colours can be seen in a rainbow and how is it formed?What is reflection? Where can it be found?What is the difference between a mirror with flat or curved surface?What is „focus“ and what is it good for?What is the connection between optics and scanners and photocopiers?What are „contact lenses“? Who uses them and why? How do they help?What do you know about the inventor of contact lenses?Is the speed of light important in optics? Why? Why not?How is the speed of light measured?How is light used in the production of televisions?What is polarization and what kinds do you know?What is „lazer“?How is laser created?What is laser good for?What is produced with the help of laser?How is laser used in medicine and other sciences?Why did people invent holograms?What are some parts of the human eye?How does the human eye work?Who is an ophtalmologist?Why do people wear glasses? How do they help us?What kind of optical illusions have you seen in your life?What is perspective and how is it used?What is the difference between a microscope and a telescope?Can you exmplain these phenomena?a) Halob) Afterglowc) Sunrised) Sunsete) Rainbow in an oil spill
28 1c 2c 3a 4c 5b 6c Explain these terms ABSORPTION OF LIGHT ANGLE OF REFLECTIONBINOCULARSCAMERA LENSCAMERA OBSCURAGLOSSHUMAN VISUAL SYSTEMLIGHT BULBPERISCOPESHADOWWhere and how are these rays and waves used?Gamma rays _______________________________________________X-rays _______________________________________________Ultraviolet _______________________________________________Visible _______________________________________________Infrared _______________________________________________Microwave _______________________________________________Radio _______________________________________________Find the correct answerLight is composed of waves and particles called: A electrons B quarks C photonsThe visible spectrum of light from the longest to shortest wavelength is: A violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange, red B infrared, ultraviolet, gamma, X-rays, microwaves C red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violetThe speed of light in a vacuum is: A km/s B m/s C m/sThe bending of light as it travels from one medium to another is: A reflection B imaging C refractionA transparent object with flat surfaces that is used to separate the visible light spectrum into its different colours is called a: A laser B prism C lensAn object under white light which reflects green light and absorbs the other six colours of the spectrum will appear the colour of: A mostly red-orange B blue-purple C green1c2c3a4c5b6c
29 Optics - links http://optics.org/ - optika - časopis o optice- věda a optika pro děti- atmosféra vs. optika- optika pro děti- informace o optice a jejich odvětvích- novinky ze světa optiky- informace z vědy a techniky- optické iluze- fakta o světle- videa - optika- optika, rozcestník- optika pro děti, lekce a odkazy- co je to laser?- využití laseru
31 Can you comment these 3 Newton´s laws of motion? What do they mean? An object in motion tends to remain in motion and an object at rest tends to remain at rest.Force equals mass times acceleration.For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.What do you know about the motion of these objects?STARS _________________________________________________SPACECRAFT _________________________________________________GALAXY _________________________________________________PROJECTILE _________________________________________________CAR _________________________________________________ARROW _________________________________________________LIGHT _________________________________________________SOUND _________________________________________________DiscussionWhat is quantum mechanics? What does it deal with?What do you know about the motion of molecules, atoms, protons and other particles?Can you comment these imperceptible motions?a) Universeb) Sunc) Earthd) Continentse) Our bodyf) CellsWhat is a pendulum? How does it work?What does a spring look like? When and how is it used?Which machines use reciprocating motion?What kind of motion can be found in an engine?What do you know about the „Brownian motion“? Where can it be found?Can you name any fun-fair attractions and describe their motion?Why do planets rotate?What would happen if the Earth stopped rotating?Can you name any sports using rotation for achieving better performance?What is the difference between rolling and rotating?Where can we find examples of rolling?
32 1T 2T 3F 4T 5F 6T 7F 8T 9F 10F First law of motion Choose whether the following statements are true or falseEverything in the universe moves.The Sun is moving around our galaxy.There are four Newton´s laws of motion.Changes in motion won't just happen on their own.Acceleration is a measure of how much the velocity of an object changes in 5 minutes.Mass is the amount of something and is measured in grams (or kilograms).Potential energy is observed when an object is in motion.If you do not apply a force to an object in motion, it will forever stay in motion.Friction can be eliminated with modern materials.Gravity is increased when you increase distance.1T2T3F4T5F6T7F8T9F10FDevide the following movements according to Newton´s laws of motionCan you describe each movement?PULLING A ROPE SKATINGWATERFALL THROWING A BALLPUSHING A SHOPPING CART HAMMER HITTING A NAILSNOWBOARNING MOVING OF A TRAINSWINGING BASEBALL PLAYINGPUSHING A HEAVY BOX ON A RAMP JOGGINGCAR CRASH DRIVINGFirst law: pulling a rope, skating, snowboarning, moving of a train, jogging,car crashSecond law: waterfall, throwing a ball, swinging, baseball playing, drivingThird law: pushing a shopping cart, hammer hitting a nail, pushing a heavy box on a rampFirst law of motionSecond law of motionThird law of motionHow important is motion in our lives?Why do we need to understand it?Do you think that future scientists will find new facts about motion and its types?
35 DiscussionWhat is the equation good for?Can you mention some typical everyday situations when equation could be used?Are there many types of equations?Why are there letters used in equations?Is it difficult to make children understand equations?Do you think your maths books are good at explaining things to children or would you like to have another books or change something in them?Can you read and solve these equations?x + 2 = 17 – 4x _______________________________________________6 + 10n – 4n = n + 1 _______________________________________________10 – 8x = -2x + 4x _______________________________________________-7p – 10 = -8p – 4p _______________________________________________| 3+k | = 8 _______________________________________________| k – 5 | = 0 _______________________________________________| 1 + v | = 4 _______________________________________________| t + 5 | = 6 _______________________________________________15 – w = 22 _______________________________________________630 = m _______________________________________________3Can you find the correct answer?What is a proportion? Are equations used for counting proportions?What is the difference between the square equation and quadratic equation?What kind of curves do you know? What are they good for?What are parentheses?What is the function of zero in equations?Are there any famous equations you can mention and explain a bit?a) ________________________________________________________b) ________________________________________________________c) ________________________________________________________d) ________________________________________________________
36 PLANE MATRIX SIDE FRACTION 38223,1646Can you solve these mathematical problems?Gabriela sold half of her comic books and then bought 15 more. Now she has 34. With how many did she begin?Jack won 71 lollipops playing basketball. At school he gave 3 lollipops to each student in his maths class. Now he has 5 remaining lollipops. How many students are there in his class?Jane bought a magazine for 5.76$ and 3 erasers. She spent a total of 12.24$. How much did each eraser cost?For a trip 17 students rode in cars and the rest filled 6 buses. How many students were in each bus when 293 students were on the trip?What can you see in the image?Can you explain the use of each equation?Which of these images are not equations? Why?Which of the equations is the most difficult for the children to understand?Can you comment these words, use them in a sentence and explain them?POINT LINE SQUARE ROOT EQUAL VALUE GRAPH DIMENSION VECTOR SOLUTION FORMULA UNKNOWN COEFFICIENT FINITE INFINITE CUBE ROOT RATIONAL NUMBER IRRATIONAL NUMBERPLANE MATRIX SIDE FRACTION
37 Equations - links- základní informace o rovnicích a druzích rovnic- vysvětlení rovnic pro děti- úvod do rovnic, příklady a vysvětlení- řešení rovnic - video– úvod do rovnic, video pro děti- pracovní sešity a aktivity pro děti- pracovní aktivity pro děti – rovnice- procvičení rovnic, různá obtížnost- velký rozcestník matematických materiálů- zajímavá fakta o rovnicích– 17 nejdůležitějších rovnic
39 ISAAC NEWTONWhen did he live?What was he interested in?What did he found and invent?What are his „law of motion“?He invented one of the first telescopes. What is a telescope good for?Newton was interested in gravitation. What is it and how does it affect us?BLAISE PASCALWhen did he live? Where did he live?What was he interested in?He was interested in fluids? Why is it important to understand the qualities of fluids?He invented the first calculator. What can you say about calculators in general and what do you know about their history?He combined mathematics and philosophy. How is maths and philosophy connected?LEONHARD EULERWhen did he live? Where did he live?He invented the graph theory. What are the graphs good for in our lives. Where can we see them and do you personally use them?He was interested in cartography. What is it? Why is it useful?Euler spent his live in Russia and Germany. Which were some other countries and places where mathematicians and philosophers lived and studied?Euler was interested in general analysis. What in maths can be analysed and why do we need to analyse things?