3DISCUSSIONWhat is physics about?What do we use it for?Is physics a popular subject? Why? Why not?What is condensation?What do you know about gases?What is a water cycle?Why does water change its form?What is light?Does light travel?Is light visible when it travels?What do you know about the energy of the Sun?Does it influence our planet anyhow?Is solar energy used anyhow?What kinds of energy do you know? Where does it come from?How would you define a „magnet“?How are liquids and solids different?What happends when the light shines on a mirror?What is magnetism?What is „Celsius“?What is a „closed circuit“ good for?Is there any difference between pushing and pulling?What happens to liquids when they evaporate? Why do they evaporate?Can you name some sources of light?Can energy be stored? How?What is „distance“? How is it counted?Is speed always measured in kilometres?What is termal energy?What is acceleration and what is its function in physics?Why do astronauts „float“ in the space?Why is radiation harmful?What kind of rays do you know?Are waves always connected with water?What do we measure with WATTS?What is the relationship between Kcal and kJ?Can energy be destroyed?What is conduction?How is thermal energy transferred?What is „echo“?
4metre kilogram second ampere kelvin candela Basic units of measurement – can you match the units?Length a) Kelvin (K)Mass b) Candela (Cd)Time c) Ampere (A)Electric Charge d) Second (s)Temperature e) Metre (m)Luminenscent Intensity f) Kilogram (kg)metrekilogramsecondamperekelvincandelaUnits of measurement – try to explain the use of these units and give examplesFrequency / HertzForce, Weight / NewtonWork, Heat / JoulePower / WattPressure / PascalIlluminance / LuxElectric charge of flux / CoulombElectrical potential difference, Electromotive force / VoltElectric resistance, Impedance, Reactance / OhmElectric capacitance / FaradMagnetic flux / WeberMagnetic flux density, magnetic induction / TeslaThermodynamic temperature / Degree CelsiusCan you complete this chart? Some information has already been giventera T 1012G 109megak 103decicmilli mµnanoptera T1012giga G 109mega M 106kilo k 103deci d 10-1centi c 10-2milli m 10-3micro µ 10-6nano n10-9pico p10-12
5Physics – links http://www.physics.org/ - populární fyzika - svět fyziky- fyzika ve třídě- fyzika a její odvětví- moderní fyzika- fyzikální hry pro děti- zajímavé fyzikální jevy- učitel fyziky- fyzika – zdroje- jak učit fyziku- fyzika – materiály– výuka fyziky- jednoduché vysvětlení pro děti- fyzikální jednotky a jednotky SI- jednotky a předpony čísel- moderní fyzika- fyzika pro děti a pracovní sešity
7http://www. shutterstock ALBERT EINSTEINWhere was he from? Why did he become so famous?What does „E=mc2“ mean?Why did he move from Germany to the USA?Did he take part in the „Manhattan Project“? What was it?Einstein was interested in relativity – what kinds of relativity do you know and why was relativity important for him?What did he think of „wormholes“? What is it and what do scientists think about it?Are there any famous experiments he took part in?ISAAC NEWTONDo you know anything about his life? What do you know about the period of time he lived in?He was interested in optics and telescopes, what do you know about it?Can you say something about Newton and his relationship to space, gravity and other planets?Can you breafly describe what the „Laws or motion“ are about?What is the practical use of Newton´s teaching?What do we measure with „Newtons“?What was scientific revolution and why is Newton considered a key figure?MARIE SKLODOWSKA – CURIEWhat did she become famous for?Which elements did she discover and can you mention their positive and negative impact on society?What do you know about her personal life? Was it influenced by her work anyhow?Why did she get the Nobel price?Was her husband famous too? For what?
8http://www. shutterstock ROBERT OPPENHEIMERWhat was the most important discovery of his life? Can you explain what was his discovery used for, what effects did it have and what were the consequences?How do you think he felt when he learned about Hiroshima and Nagasaki?Can you think of more scientiscs who invented something amazing but in the end it was abused or used in a completely different way?STEPHEN HAWKINGDo you know anything about this scientist? Why is he famous?Do you know anything about his physical condition?Hawking is fascinated by black holes and other objects in space. Do you think that one day it will be possible to travel in space, time and live on space ships just like they do in the TV series?Which things do you think will never be possible?Hawking writes books for children and public – do you think people are interested in physics? How can teachers make physics attractive and interesting for children?WILHELM RÖNTGENWhat did he invent?How did his invention change modern medicine?Where is his invention used and what would happen if he had never invented it?Does his invention harm people as well? How? When? Why?What kinds of “rays” do you know and what are they used for? Are any of them hamrful as well?
9Famous physicists - links - slavní fyzikové- odkazy na slavné fyziky- biografie a videa slavných fyziků- stránky Nobelovy ceny- Einsteinův život- Einsteinovy citáty- Newton a jeho život- informace a teze Isaaca Newtona- život Marie Curie- Radioaktivita- oficiální stránky Stephena Hawkinga- Röntgen a jeho život- rozcestník známých vědců
11DiscussionWhat is a lever?How does it work?Can you think of some everyday situations when levels are used?Do animals know this principle?Does the amount of work change when you use the lever or use your own physical power?What is the inclined plane?What is it used for?Can you give any practical examples?Have you ever used it? How? When?Can you finish this sentence .. „The steeper the plane is the more difficult it is to “People say that inclined plane was used for building the Pyramids in Egypt. What do you think about it and can you explain the use of the plane during the building? What in general do you think about the pay the Pyramids were built?How old do you think wheels are?What were they used for during ancient times?What are the wheels used for now?Can you imagine life without wheels? How would your life change?What is a screw? What does it look like?When can we find them and are they important?Which of these machines were invented by Archimedes?What is a wedge?What is a pulley?Use these words in sentences and explain themSLOPE WOODEN FORCE LIGHT HEAVY TOOL WINDMILL WHEEL SCREW ARCHIMEDES INVENT MECHANISM MATERIAL LIFT BOTTLE OPENER FORCE DIRECTION SPIRAL FLAT ROUND OPEN BUILT PYRAMIND ANCIENT TIMES PULL PUSH WEIGHT ROPE SCREWDRIVER PRINT TURN ARTIFICIAL
12USING A HAMMER TO PULL OUT A NAIL Solve these tasksWhich of these activities are examples of using a lever? Circle them and comment what happens during these activitiesUSING A HAMMER TO PULL OUT A NAILUSING A BOTTLE-OPENER TO OPEN A BEER BOTTLEUSING A BLENDER FOR MAKING A COCTAILUSING A SCREWDRIVER TO PRY THE LID OFF A CAN OF PAINTA PAIR OF SCISSORSOPENING A WINDOWUSING A BALANCE SCALE TO WEIGH THINGSCHANGING THE TIREPLAYING ON A SEE-SAWWhich is not an example of a simple machine?screw – pulley – fulcrum - inclined planeA nail can be hammered into a piece of wood, but a bolt cannot. What simple machine can be found at the point of a nail?wheel and axle - inclined plane - lever - wedgeA seesaw is an example of what simple machine?wedge – lever - iclined plane - screw5. In a second class lever, the load is placed in between the fulcrum and the effort.Given this information, which of the following is NOT a second class lever?bottle opener - fishing rod - nut cracker - paper cutter A pulley is most closely related to which other simple machine?lever – screw - inclined plane - wheel and axle7. What type of simple machine is a mountain road?lever – wedge - inclined plane - wheel - axle Which of the following best explains why lifting a heavy object with a singlepulley and rope makes the task seem easier?less force is needed to lift the object - less work is done when moving theobject - the direction of the force required to lift the object is changed - theforce needed to move the object is applied over a greater distanceUsing a hammer to pull out a nailUsing a bottle-opener to open a beer bottleusing a screwdriver to pry the lid off a can of paintA pair of scissorsUsing a balance scale to weigh thingsplaying on a see-sawDiscussion – simple machines and youWhen are simple machines taught at the basic school?Is it easy for the children to understand it?What examples do you use for each machine?How do you test the students´ knowledge?Do you mention Archimedes and the Pyramids in your lessons?
13Simple machines - links - jednoduché nástroje, vysvětlení- nástroje a obrázky- video pro děti, nástroje a jejich využití- praktické ukázky, hýbající se obrázky- druhy a formy jednoduchých nástrojů- videa jednotlivých nástrojů- vědecké hry pro děti- příklady jednoduchých přístrojů okolo nás– video základních přístrojů- výuka jednoduchých přístrojů online
15DiscusstionHow do we read time in English?Why do people need to know time?What would happen if people didn´t know time?What kind of clock do you know?How do we read dates in English?How do we read years and centuries in English?What is a calendar?What parts does a calendar have and why do some years have 366 days?Is time relative?Who is the author of the theory of relativity and what is it?How many seconds are there in one minute?How many minutes are there in one hour?How many seasons as there in one year?How many months are there in one year?Do you know any other time units of measurement ?How old is our planet? How are such things counted?Some people speak about the „Big Bang“. What is it and what did it mean for our planet?What do you know about mechanical clocks? When were they invented? How did they change our lives?What is a pendulum? What purpose does it have?What is the difference between subjective and objective understanding of time?Some scientists say that the fourth-dimension means time. Do you agree?Einstein said that „time is only an illusion“. What did he mean by that?Can you comment human perception of time vs. ...BIRTH AND DEATHAGINGFUTUREPASTMEMORIESKNOWN AND UNKNOWN THINGSMOTIONSUBJECTIVE FEELINGPLEASANT AND UNPLEASANT FEELINGSRELATIVITY OF PRESENCE
16These were the biggest discoveries in physics during the time – can you comment them? How did they change people´s lives?240 BC Archimedes discovers his principle of buoyancy.1514 Nicolaus Copernicus develops his heliocentric theory.1592 Galileo Galilei invents the thermometer.1604 Galileo Galilei proves that falling bodies are accelerated towards the ground at a constant rate.1651 Blaise Pascal shows that pressure applied at one point in a liquid is transmitted unchanged to all points in the liquid.1668 Isaac Newton designs and builds a reflecting telescope.1714 Gabriel Fahrenheit introduces the mercury thermometer and his new scale of temperature.1800 Alessandro Volta invents the battery.1822 André Ampère shows that two wires carrying electric currents attract each other.1898 Ernest Rutherford discovers alpha and beta radiation.1909 Robert Millikan measures the charge on the electron.1948 John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley invent the transistor.Time – discussionHow can the Sun help us to measure time?How can the stars help us to measure time?What is an „Obelisk“ and how is it connected to time?Is there anything like „water clock“?What is the difference between mechanical and digital clock?What is the difference between wall clock and pocket clock? What do they look like?What is atomic clock?Why would pendulum clock never work on a ship?Why is there summer in Europe while there is winter in Australia?What is a „time zone“? Why and when is it important?What is a „timeline“? When is it used?Could Galileo and Copernicus meet each other?Can you compare Mayan calendar and our European calendar?With the decimal system, everything is divided into tens. However, minutes are 1/60 of an hour, and seconds are 1/60 of a minute. To which ancient civilization do we owe this division?
17Time in physics and astrology - links - čas ve fyzice- co je to čas a naše vnímání času- fyzické dohady a nejasnosti- co je to čas?- čas ve fyzice od Einsteina- čas a systémy měření- starověká astronomie- druhy „času“- novinky ze světa vědy a fyziky- fyzika vs. astrofyzika- problém času v astronomii- Einstein vs. čas– časový paradox– video – čas v kvantové mechanice
19How would you explain these forms of energy How would you explain these forms of energy? Can you give examples as well?Kinetic ________________________________________________Chemical ________________________________________________Electric ________________________________________________Magnetic ________________________________________________Radiant ________________________________________________Nuclear ________________________________________________Elastic ________________________________________________Sound ________________________________________________Thermal ________________________________________________Gravitational ________________________________________________What kind of energy is produced during these activities?Riding a roller-coasterPhotosynthesisCyclist using a dynamoSpacecraft landing on MoonOxidationClappingPlaying billiardsDigestion of foodBurningSwitching on a generatorFlowing waterHaving an X-rayFeeling the warmth of a campfire on your faceSnapping your fingersRunningKicking the soccer ballDiscussionWhat is energy? Who invented it?When did people start to be interested in energy?How is energy „created“?How is it stored?How is it distributed?Is it dangerous anyhow?
20Can you comment these pictures and their relationship to energy? 1)2)3)4)5)6)7)8)9)10)11)12)13)14)15)16)Energy in contextHow is the term „energy“ used in chemistry?What kind of energy do we talk about in biology?What happens in a volcano before the erruption?What happens during an earthquake?How important are fats and calories in human life?What is the food chain and what kind of energy is produced during that process?What do you know about these machines that are used for producing energy? TURBINE, GENERATOR, ENGINEComment these factsIf a person yelled for 8 years, 7 months, and 6 days, he or she would produce enough energy to heat one cup of coffee.Energy cannot be destroyed or created—only transformed.The top seven oil consumers combined use more than half of the world’s total. The United States alone uses more than a quarter.Nuclear power produces around 13% of the world's electricity.Space missions have been using solar energy to power spaceships since 1958.Although the sun is over 90 million miles from the Earth, it takes less than 10 minutes for light to speed across that distance.Petroleum oil provided 18 percent of energy for electricity in 1973 and less than 1 percent in 2011.
21Energy - links- Co je to energie? Informační rozcestník- druhy energie- vysvětlení druhů energie- fyzikální rozcestník, energie- kinetická energie- zvuková energie- přesun energie- vysvětlení energie pro děti- druhy energie, příklady a vysvětlení- elektrická energie- novinky a informace ze světa energií- zajímavá fakta o energiii
23What energy cources are necessary in these industries? AGRICULTURETRANSPORTATIONWASTE COLLECTIONINFORMATION TECHNOLOGIESCOMMUNICATIONSPeople need a lot of devices for their life. Can you comment these devices and their use? How did they change people´s lives?DishwasherAir-conditioningComputerSewing machinePrinterSlot machineCNC machinesBrick making machineAnaesthetic machineX-ray machineWhat is the environmental impact of energy production?What are natural resources? Can you name any of them?Where are they?Why do we want them?What do we use them for?Are the reserves unlimited?What will we do when there are no natural resources?What is pollution?How can we limit it?What is the „greenhouse effect“?What causes „global warming“? Do you believe in it?What do you know about these elements: beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese, mercury, nickel and silver?What is renewable energy?What kind of powerplants do you know and which of them are the biggest pollutants?Why are there wars to get more resources?
24How do these „issues“ influence global energetics? TERRORISM WARS RELIGIONNATURAL DISASTERACCIDENTPOLITICAL SYSTEMPOVERTYEXPORT AND IMPORTTransportWhat kinds of transport do you know?How does transport influence the environment?What kinds of fuel can means of transport use?What is the energy of the future? What do you think?How is energy transported?What is the difference between a wire and a pipeline?There are the principles of energetics. Can you explain them and comment them?Zeroth principle of energeticsIf two thermodynamic systems A and B are in thermal equilibrium, and B and C are also in thermal equilibrium, then A and C are in thermal equilibrium.First principle of energeticsThe increase in the internal energy of a system is equal to the amount of energy added to the system by heating, minus the amount lost in the form of work done by the system on its surroundings.Second principle of energeticsThe total entropy of any isolated thermodynamic system tends to increase over time, approaching a maximum value.Third principle of energeticsAs a system approaches absolute zero of temperature all processes cease and the entropy of the system approaches a minimum value or zero for the case of a perfect crystalline substance.Fourth principle of energeticsIn the field of ecological energetics H.T. Odum considered maximum power, the fourth principle of energetics. Odum also proposed the maximum empower principle as a corollary of the maximum power principle, and considered it to describe the propensities of evolutionary self-organization.Fifth principle of energeticsThe energy quality factor increases hierarchically. Flows of energy develop hierarchical webs in which inflowing energies interact and are transformed by work processes into energy forms of higher quality that feedback amplifier actions, helping to maximise the power of the system.Sixth principle of energeticsMaterial cycles have hierarchical patterns measured by the energy/mass ratio that determines its zone and pulse frequency in the energy hierarchy.TaskEach students makes up his/her own fraction or percent task and gives it to the others. Then the student explains the solution to the others.
25Energy industry - links - definice pojmu- energetický průmysl- zprávy, energetický průmysl- vývoj celosvětové energetiky- americký energetický plán- vývoj celosvětových energií- alternativní energie a jejich preference- EU a její postoj k energiím- nové energie a trendy- energetické zprávy na CNBC- přístup vlády ČR k energiím- průmysl v ČR– analýza průmyslu ČR
27DiscusstionWhat are some key words of „optics“?What kinds of light do you know?What are some qualities of light?What is a ray?What are some devices using light, rays and reflection?What is a magnifying glass and what is/was it used for?What do you know about history of photography and photographical devices?What colours can be seen in a rainbow and how is it formed?What is reflection? Where can it be found?What is the difference between a mirror with flat or curved surface?What is „focus“ and what is it good for?What is the connection between optics and scanners and photocopiers?What are „contact lenses“? Who uses them and why? How do they help?What do you know about the inventor of contact lenses?Is the speed of light important in optics? Why? Why not?How is the speed of light measured?How is light used in the production of televisions?What is polarization and what kinds do you know?What is „lazer“?How is laser created?What is laser good for?What is produced with the help of laser?How is laser used in medicine and other sciences?Why did people invent holograms?What are some parts of the human eye?How does the human eye work?Who is an ophtalmologist?Why do people wear glasses? How do they help us?What kind of optical illusions have you seen in your life?What is perspective and how is it used?What is the difference between a microscope and a telescope?Can you exmplain these phenomena?a) Halob) Afterglowc) Sunrised) Sunsete) Rainbow in an oil spill
281c 2c 3a 4c 5b 6c Explain these terms ABSORPTION OF LIGHT ANGLE OF REFLECTIONBINOCULARSCAMERA LENSCAMERA OBSCURAGLOSSHUMAN VISUAL SYSTEMLIGHT BULBPERISCOPESHADOWWhere and how are these rays and waves used?Gamma rays _______________________________________________X-rays _______________________________________________Ultraviolet _______________________________________________Visible _______________________________________________Infrared _______________________________________________Microwave _______________________________________________Radio _______________________________________________Find the correct answerLight is composed of waves and particles called: A electrons B quarks C photonsThe visible spectrum of light from the longest to shortest wavelength is: A violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange, red B infrared, ultraviolet, gamma, X-rays, microwaves C red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violetThe speed of light in a vacuum is: A km/s B m/s C m/sThe bending of light as it travels from one medium to another is: A reflection B imaging C refractionA transparent object with flat surfaces that is used to separate the visible light spectrum into its different colours is called a: A laser B prism C lensAn object under white light which reflects green light and absorbs the other six colours of the spectrum will appear the colour of: A mostly red-orange B blue-purple C green1c2c3a4c5b6c
29Optics - links http://optics.org/ - optika - časopis o optice- věda a optika pro děti- atmosféra vs. optika- optika pro děti- informace o optice a jejich odvětvích- novinky ze světa optiky- informace z vědy a techniky- optické iluze- fakta o světle- videa - optika- optika, rozcestník- optika pro děti, lekce a odkazy- co je to laser?- využití laseru
31Can you comment these 3 Newton´s laws of motion? What do they mean? An object in motion tends to remain in motion and an object at rest tends to remain at rest.Force equals mass times acceleration.For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.What do you know about the motion of these objects?STARS _________________________________________________SPACECRAFT _________________________________________________GALAXY _________________________________________________PROJECTILE _________________________________________________CAR _________________________________________________ARROW _________________________________________________LIGHT _________________________________________________SOUND _________________________________________________DiscussionWhat is quantum mechanics? What does it deal with?What do you know about the motion of molecules, atoms, protons and other particles?Can you comment these imperceptible motions?a) Universeb) Sunc) Earthd) Continentse) Our bodyf) CellsWhat is a pendulum? How does it work?What does a spring look like? When and how is it used?Which machines use reciprocating motion?What kind of motion can be found in an engine?What do you know about the „Brownian motion“? Where can it be found?Can you name any fun-fair attractions and describe their motion?Why do planets rotate?What would happen if the Earth stopped rotating?Can you name any sports using rotation for achieving better performance?What is the difference between rolling and rotating?Where can we find examples of rolling?
321T 2T 3F 4T 5F 6T 7F 8T 9F 10F First law of motion Choose whether the following statements are true or falseEverything in the universe moves.The Sun is moving around our galaxy.There are four Newton´s laws of motion.Changes in motion won't just happen on their own.Acceleration is a measure of how much the velocity of an object changes in 5 minutes.Mass is the amount of something and is measured in grams (or kilograms).Potential energy is observed when an object is in motion.If you do not apply a force to an object in motion, it will forever stay in motion.Friction can be eliminated with modern materials.Gravity is increased when you increase distance.1T2T3F4T5F6T7F8T9F10FDevide the following movements according to Newton´s laws of motionCan you describe each movement?PULLING A ROPE SKATINGWATERFALL THROWING A BALLPUSHING A SHOPPING CART HAMMER HITTING A NAILSNOWBOARNING MOVING OF A TRAINSWINGING BASEBALL PLAYINGPUSHING A HEAVY BOX ON A RAMP JOGGINGCAR CRASH DRIVINGFirst law: pulling a rope, skating, snowboarning, moving of a train, jogging,car crashSecond law: waterfall, throwing a ball, swinging, baseball playing, drivingThird law: pushing a shopping cart, hammer hitting a nail, pushing a heavy box on a rampFirst law of motionSecond law of motionThird law of motionHow important is motion in our lives?Why do we need to understand it?Do you think that future scientists will find new facts about motion and its types?
35DiscussionWhat is the equation good for?Can you mention some typical everyday situations when equation could be used?Are there many types of equations?Why are there letters used in equations?Is it difficult to make children understand equations?Do you think your maths books are good at explaining things to children or would you like to have another books or change something in them?Can you read and solve these equations?x + 2 = 17 – 4x _______________________________________________6 + 10n – 4n = n + 1 _______________________________________________10 – 8x = -2x + 4x _______________________________________________-7p – 10 = -8p – 4p _______________________________________________| 3+k | = 8 _______________________________________________| k – 5 | = 0 _______________________________________________| 1 + v | = 4 _______________________________________________| t + 5 | = 6 _______________________________________________15 – w = 22 _______________________________________________630 = m _______________________________________________3Can you find the correct answer?What is a proportion? Are equations used for counting proportions?What is the difference between the square equation and quadratic equation?What kind of curves do you know? What are they good for?What are parentheses?What is the function of zero in equations?Are there any famous equations you can mention and explain a bit?a) ________________________________________________________b) ________________________________________________________c) ________________________________________________________d) ________________________________________________________
36PLANE MATRIX SIDE FRACTION 38223,1646Can you solve these mathematical problems?Gabriela sold half of her comic books and then bought 15 more. Now she has 34. With how many did she begin?Jack won 71 lollipops playing basketball. At school he gave 3 lollipops to each student in his maths class. Now he has 5 remaining lollipops. How many students are there in his class?Jane bought a magazine for 5.76$ and 3 erasers. She spent a total of 12.24$. How much did each eraser cost?For a trip 17 students rode in cars and the rest filled 6 buses. How many students were in each bus when 293 students were on the trip?What can you see in the image?Can you explain the use of each equation?Which of these images are not equations? Why?Which of the equations is the most difficult for the children to understand?Can you comment these words, use them in a sentence and explain them?POINT LINE SQUARE ROOT EQUAL VALUE GRAPH DIMENSION VECTOR SOLUTION FORMULA UNKNOWN COEFFICIENT FINITE INFINITE CUBE ROOT RATIONAL NUMBER IRRATIONAL NUMBERPLANE MATRIX SIDE FRACTION
37Equations - links- základní informace o rovnicích a druzích rovnic- vysvětlení rovnic pro děti- úvod do rovnic, příklady a vysvětlení- řešení rovnic - video– úvod do rovnic, video pro děti- pracovní sešity a aktivity pro děti- pracovní aktivity pro děti – rovnice- procvičení rovnic, různá obtížnost- velký rozcestník matematických materiálů- zajímavá fakta o rovnicích– 17 nejdůležitějších rovnic
39ISAAC NEWTONWhen did he live?What was he interested in?What did he found and invent?What are his „law of motion“?He invented one of the first telescopes. What is a telescope good for?Newton was interested in gravitation. What is it and how does it affect us?BLAISE PASCALWhen did he live? Where did he live?What was he interested in?He was interested in fluids? Why is it important to understand the qualities of fluids?He invented the first calculator. What can you say about calculators in general and what do you know about their history?He combined mathematics and philosophy. How is maths and philosophy connected?LEONHARD EULERWhen did he live? Where did he live?He invented the graph theory. What are the graphs good for in our lives. Where can we see them and do you personally use them?He was interested in cartography. What is it? Why is it useful?Euler spent his live in Russia and Germany. Which were some other countries and places where mathematicians and philosophers lived and studied?Euler was interested in general analysis. What in maths can be analysed and why do we need to analyse things?
40http://www. shutterstock CARL GAUSSDo you know him? What do you know about him?He was interested in geophysics and geodesy, what are they about?A few things and places were named after Gauss. Can you think of any of them?He was fond of differencial geometry? What is it used for? Do you understand it?GOTTFRIEND WILHELM LEIBNIZWho was he?What has his field of interest?He wrote the „Law of continuity“. What is it?He added multiplication and division to Pascals calculator – why did the people need these functions? What for and in which areas was the calculator used?He was one of those who invented the binary number system – where is it used and why was this invention important?PIERRE SIMON LAPLACEDo you know this matematician?He was an astronomer and one of the first ones to mention „black holes“. What is it? How is it formed? What do people think about them? And do they really exist?He was also interested into the speed of sound. Why is it important to understand it? When and for what is it used?What do you think that all the matematicians thought about religion and God? What did they believe in and what do you think that people thought about them?Was the life of a matematician a hard life?
41Famous matematicians - links největších matematiků- známí matematikovénejznámějších matematiků včetně moderních- matematici a jejich vynálezy a názory- seznam matematiků a rozcestník na jejich stránky- ženy v matematice a informace o nich- obrázky známých matematiků- matematici dle národnosti- matematický rozcestník, kvízy a testy- kvíz (matematici)- kvíz pro děti
43DiscussionWhat is a graph?What is it good use for?What kind of graphs do you know?What kind of information can I find in a graf?Look at the image below and try to quess what is each graph used for, how do you understand these graphs and which ones to do find easy to understand and which ones do you think are quite complicted.____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
44Can you answer these questions? Can you draw an example of a ?HISTOGRAM BAR CHART PIE CHART LINE CHARTCan you explain directed graphs?Can you explain indirected graphs?What is a mixed graph?32 children voted for their favourite ice-cream flavour. How many children voted for chocolate?a) draw the graph and find out the correct answerb) ¼ vanilla, 1/8 strawberry, ¼ lemon, 3/8 chocolateA class of 30 voted for their favourite actor who played James Bond.How many voted for Sean Connery?How many did not vote for George Lazenby?How many more children voted for Pierce Brosnan than Roger Moore?How many children all together voted for Sean Connery and Roger Moore?WHEN 2/5 voted for Pierce Brosnan, 1/10 for Timothy Dalton, 1/5 Roger Moore, 1/5 Sean Connery, 1/10 George LazenbyDraw the graph and answer the questions.Which type of graph would you choose for showing how the price of gasoline changes each month over a year?Which type of graph would you choose for showing the attendence in your class?What is the name of the graph that uses pictures and symbols to show data?
45Graphs and charts - links - grafy pro děti a učitele- vytvoř si vlastní graf- grafy, matematický rozcestník– druhy grafů, video- statistika a grafy pro děti (moc hezké)- typy grafů- matematické hry pro školní děti- jak stvořit graf- jak učit děti grafy- složitější matemetické grafy a funkce- video - matematické funkce- matematické kvízy
46Maths around us - dictionary and phrases Bbankovka - banknoteCcesta – journeyČčas - timeDdélka – lengthden - daydrahý - expensivedrobné changeHhodinky - watchhodiny – clockhra – gamehrát – playKkalendář - calendarkilogram – kilogrammekoupit - buyLlék - medicinelevný – cheaplitr - litreMměsíc - monthmnožství – amountNnejmenší – the smallestnejvětší – the biggestPpeníze – moneypilulka – pillplatit - paypočasí – weatherpodobný - similarpoplatek – fee, chargeporažený – loserprodat sellpřidat – addRroční období - seasonrychlost - speedSskóre – scoresměnárna – exchange officesměnný kurz – exchange ratesport – sportstatistika – statisticsstejný – the samestupeň – degreesymetrie – symmetryTtýden - weekVváha – scales (přístroj)váha – weight (člověka)vážit - weighvítěz – winnervýlet - tripvýsledek – resultvzdálenost – distanceJak dlouho to trvá? How long does it take?Kdo vyhrál? Who won?Kolik je hodin? What´s the time?Je pozdě. It´s late.Je brzy. It´s (too) soon.Má moc práce. He´s busy.Kolik to stojí? How much is it?Máte drobné? Do you have change?Kolik vám dlužím? How much do I owe you?Je to drahé. It´s expensive.Je to levné. It´s cheap.Kde je směnárna? Where is the exchange office?Máte eura? Do you have euros?Kolik je poplatek? How much is the free/charge?Kolik chcete kil? How many kilos do you want?Kolik stojí kilo? How much is one kilo?Kolik vody mám přidat? How much water shall I add?Kolik to váží? How much does it weigh?Kolik si toho mám vzít? How much shall I take?Jak často si to mámn brát? How often shall I take it?Jaké je počasí? What is the weather like?Jak rychle jedete? How fast do you go?Jak často jezdíte? How often do you know?
47skóre plán výletu čas nakupování sports – bowling atd směnárna vaření Can you name any individual sports?Can you name any team sports?Can you name any sports where the team has only 2 members?Can you name any sports in which the sportsmen need to score?Can you name any sports where time is very important?Can you name any sports with subjective evaluation?Which sport and system of evaluation is your favourite?TRAVELLINGWhat does it mean to come late?What can you do not to come late?What is a delay?What means of transport do you know and which one is the most reliable?What can go wrong when it comes to different kinds of transport?Can you compare prices of various means of transport?What are emissions? What do they consist of?What can you use maths for during your holiday?TIMEWhy do people need to learn to tell the time?What would happen if people didn´t have any watches?Do you think that our lives are faster than they used to be? Why?Why does 5min sometimes seem so long and sometimes so short?Do you always come on time?How do you feel when you are late?What do you think about people who come late?What is a timetable?What is a schedule?Do you carefully plan your days?SHOPPINGDo you like shopping?How often do you go shopping?How much do you usually spend?Is living in the Czech Republic getting more and more expensive? Why?Can you buy everything you want?Do you think some people buy more than they need?Should we plan our shopping?How should we plan our budget?skóreplán výletučasnakupovánísports – bowling atdsměnárnavařeníwhen we are sickkalendářpočasíjízda dopr prv příroděpenízesymetriestatistikaopakovanost
48EXCHANGE OFFICEWhen do go to the exchange office?What currencies can I get there?What is an exchange rate?What can you say about the changing exchange rate between EURO and THE CZECH CROWN?What is a „fee“? Why is it paid?COOKINGDo we need maths in the kitchen? When?What gadgets help us with measuring in the kitchen?Why do I need to know exact numbers in the kitchen?MEDICINEWhat would happen if people didn´t use maths when it comes to mediation?What forms of medication do you know?What is a „dose“?What does it mean to overdose someone?Do you remember any case when someone overdosed other people on purpose?CALENDARWhat is a calendar? What is it good for?Is there only one kind of calendar in the world?What kinds of calendar do you know?Which month and season are your favourite any why?REPETITIONIs there anything that you do EVERY day?What do you do only ONCE a week?How OFTEN do you go on holiday?What would you NEVER do and why?Have you EVER tried any adrenalin sport?Is there any food that you have ALWAYS wanted to try?How OFTEN do you cook?How many times have you moved in your life?How many times have you been abroad?How many times have you tasted something really discusting?Have you EVER seen any accident?Have you EVER been to a bank abroad?
49Maths around us - links- matematika v našem životě – prezentace- matematika okolo nás – obrázky a vysvětlení- hra - kolem světa za 80sekund- online matematická hra- přístup k výuce matematiky ve světě- matematika vs. svět kolem nás– videa – matematika a my- finanční povědomí- prezentace - matematiky kolem nás- prezentace - nejen matematickéhttps://sites.google.com/site/merit0910annettejuanita/activities - praktické matematické aktivity ve třídě
51BASIC MATHEMATICSCan you explain these terms? Can you give an example as well?ELEMENT ______________________________________________CONJUNCTION ______________________________________________EQUIVALENCE ______________________________________________DEFINITION ______________________________________________PROOF ______________________________________________NATURAL NUMBERS ______________________________________________RATIONAL NUMBER ______________________________________________IRRATIONAL NUMBERS ____________________________________________NUMERIC FIELD ______________________________________________SECOND AND THIRD SQUARE ROOT __________________________________ESTIMATION ______________________________________________ROUNDING ______________________________________________RESULT ______________________________________________PRIME NUMBERS ______________________________________________ARITHMETIC ______________________________________________QUESTIONS and ANSWERSWhat is algebra?What is a formula? Can you give examples of a few formulas and comment them?a) __________________________________________________________b) __________________________________________________________c) __________________________________________________________ d) _________________________________________________________What is quadratic inequality?What is a parameter? When are they used?What is planimetry?How is planimetry used in everyday life?Is it easy or difficult to teach planimetry? What are the biggest problems for the students?What kinds of shapes do you know?
52DiscussionWhat is a function?What kinds of functions do you know?What are they used for?How do you explain functions to your students?What is goniometry about? Can you draw and example?6. What is trigonometry about? Can you draw and example?7. What is stereometry? Can you draw and example?What is the differential calculus?What is the integral calculus?Can you draw and example of a matrix?Can you give an example of a decimal number?Can you write a few fractions and read them aloud?What is a percentage? What is it good for?What is probability?Make a definition of one mathematical term and let the others guess what it is...________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
53the teacher DOESN´T show this worksheet to the students 10002000300040005000ALGEBRAWhat s addition?What is subtraction?What is whole number?What is integer?What is division?DECIMALSRead 0,2Read 0,258Read 0,1582Count 1 – 0,2585 = ?Count 2 – 0,5588 = ?EQUATIONSGive an example of a 1-step equation.Give an example of a 2-step equation.What kinds of equations do you know?Can you tell us some really famous equations?Can you name a mathematician and say what he is famous for?FRACTIONSWhat are the parts of a fraction?Explain the adding of fractions.Explain the subtraction of fractions.Explain the multiplication of fractions.Explain the division of fractions.GEOMETRYName 5 different shapes.What is the difference between 2D and 3D?Is there anything like 4D? What is it?Name 2 formulas for counting the 2D shapes and explain them.Name 2 formulas for counting the 3D shapes and explain them.GRAPHSWhat is a graph?What kinds of graphs do you know?Draw a „pie“ graph.Draw a „bar“ graph.Draw your favourite type of graph and explain it.MEASUREMENTWhat are some units of weight?What are some units of lengh?What are some units of time?Say something about British units of measurement.Convert:3m = ____ feetTIMEHow many seconds are there in one hour?How many months are there in one year?How many days are there in one year?What kind of calendars do you know?Is time relative? Explain it.JEOPARDYthe teacher DOESN´T show this worksheet to the studentseach student chooses his/her own question, e.g. „Time for 3000“ – then the teacher asks the question and the students answers it.if the answer is correct – the the student gets the pointsif the answer is not correct – the student gets no points and another student can continuethe teacher corrects the wrong answers – nobody gets points for those answers
541d 2i 3f 4j 5a 6h 7b 8e 9g 10c BIG PRESENTATION Each student chooses one mathematical field and everyone gets time to prepare the presentation.The presentation will contain:a) explanationb) practical usec) a few example and exercisesQuess the wordALGORITHM A) the branch of mathematics that deals with the logic and consistency of mathematical proofs, formulas, and equations.ANALOGISM B) the doctrines taught by PythagorasCALCULUS C) the branch of mathematics that deals with the relationships between the sides and the angles of triangles and the calculations based on them, particularly the trigonometric functionsGEOMETRY D) any methodology for solving a certain kind of problemMETAMATHEMATICS E) the branch of algebra that deals with quadratic equationsPLANIMETRY F) a system or method of calculationPYTHAGORISM G) the study of the properties of geometric figuresQUADRATICS H) measurement of plane areasTOPOLOGY I) the construction of a proportionTRIGONOMETRY J) the mathematics of the properties, measurement, and relationships of points, lines, angles, surfaces, and solids1d2i3f4j5a6h7b8e9g10c
55Famous maths quotes... what do you think about them? If people do not believe that mathematics is simple, it is only because they do not realize how complicated life is. ~John Louis von NeumannPure mathematics is, in its way, the poetry of logical ideas. ~Albert EinsteinThe essence of mathematics is not to make simple things complicated, but to make complicated things simple. ~S. GudderGo down deep enough into anything and you will find mathematics. ~Dean SchlicterSometimes it is useful to know how large your zero is. ~Author UnknownIf there is a God, he's a great mathematician. ~Paul DiracInfinity is a floorless room without walls or ceiling. ~Author UnknownOne cannot escape the feeling that these mathematical formulas have an independent existence and an intelligence of their own, that they are wiser than we are, wiser even than their discoverers... ~Heinrich HertzYou and mathsWhen did you become interested in maths?Why did you decide to study it?What about your studies? Where did you study and how difficult was it?Why did you become a teacher?Say something about your school.Say something about maths in each grade – what do you teach there?Which fields of maths are the most popular and which ones are the least popular of all?Why do the children like / dislike maths?What kind of tool do you use during your lessons?How often do you test your students?What methods do you use to explain various fields of maths?What do you think about the „state maturitas“?Do you think everyone should take the state maturita from maths?Why is maths important for our future?How do you think young students should be attracted to mathematical universities?What jobs can the students do when they finish mathemtical universities?Which mathematical problems do you think scientists will be solving in the future?Do you think you will spend your life as a teacher of mathematics?
56Online games and quizes – links - pracovní sešity- pracovní sešity- pracovní sešity- pracovní sešity- pracovní sešity