…která měla mít pro lidstvo naprosto zásadní význam. Fusion is what happens when two atomic nuclei are forced together by high pressure... high enough to overcome the strong repulsive forces of the respective protons in the nuclei. When the nuclei fuse, they form a new element, and release excess energy in the form of a fast-moving neutron. The energy is 'extra' because the mass of the newly formed nucleus is less than the sum of the masses of the original two nuclei; the extra mass is converted to energy according to Einstein's equation E=mc2 This energy can be used to do useful work! The nuclei used by the sun, and in experiments on earth, that undergo fusion, are two isotopes of hydrogen called deuterium and tritium. The simple hydrogen atom, which has one proton in its nucleus, has two isotopes... similar forms of hydrogen, but with extra neutrons in their nuclei. One is called deuterium, the other tritium. You can see the fusion process happening with these two nuclei, in the diagram at the top of the page. The first generation fusion reactors will use deuterium and tritium for fuel because they will fuse at a lower temperature. Deuterium can be easily extracted from seawater, where 1 in 6500 hydrogen atoms is deuterium. Tritium can be bred from lithium, which is abundant in the earth's crust. In the fusion reaction a deuterium and tritium atom combine together, or fuse, to form an atom of helium and an energetic neutron. It only takes a small amount of these isotopes to produce a lot of energy! The deuterium-tritium fusion reaction results in an energy gain of about 450:1!! No other energy source we can tap releases so much energy for the amount that is input. they must either be heated to that temperature, or caused to move fast enough to simulate a correspondingly high temperature. HEURÉKA! TO ZNAMENÁ,ŽE
A zatímco se Stalinova armáda blížila k finálnímu střetu s britskou, pokusné reaktory se začaly stavět téměř po celém světě.