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Gen-ethics and Synt-ethics 2012 Marek Vácha 3rd Faculty of Medicine UK, Prague.

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Prezentace na téma: "Gen-ethics and Synt-ethics 2012 Marek Vácha 3rd Faculty of Medicine UK, Prague."— Transkript prezentace:

1 Gen-ethics and Synt-ethics 2012 Marek Vácha 3rd Faculty of Medicine UK, Prague



4 Green generation  Taiwan: DNA from jellyfish was added to about 265 pig embryos which were implanted in eight different sows.  Four of the female pigs became pregnant and three male piglets were born  The pigs are transgenic, created by adding genetic material from jellyfish into a normal pig embryo.

5 Green generation  They are the only ones that are green from the inside out. Even their heart and internal organs are green  It remains to be seen, whether from the ethical point of view… ….everything is ok?

6 ANDi

7  a transgenic rhesus monkey has been born that carries the gene for green fluorescent protein (GFP) in each cell of his body  the gene for GFP was inserted into a viral vector that was injected into the space between the oocyte and the zona pellucida in a rhesus monkey egg.  The vector inserted the GFP gene into the egg DNA, and the resulting offspring, a monkey called ANDi (=inserted DNA) has GFP genes in all of his cells  (Gilbert, S.C., Tyler, A.L., Zackin, E.J., (2005) Bioethics and the New Embryology. Sinauer Associates, Inc. W.H. Freeman & comp. Sunderland, MA U.S.A. p. 196)

8 Frankenfish

9  The GM Atlantic salmon grows twice as fast as its wild cousin.  Its genes have been artificially augmented with DNA taken from two other fish –  the Pacific Chinook salmon and  an eel-like species called an ocean pout (Zoarces americanus) – in order to boost the growth hormone that allows it continually to put on weight throughout the year.  grows-2085856.html grows-2085856.html

10 The Enviropig A genetically engineered pig recently approved for limited production in Canada makes urine and feces that contain up to 65 percent less phosphorous, officials have announced.

11 The Enviropig  Between 50% and 75% of the phosphorus present in cereal grains including corn, soybeans, barley and wheat is present in an indigestible compound called phytate that passes through the pig's digestive tract. The Enviropig is a genetically enhanced line of Yorkshire pigs with the capability of digesting plant phosphorus more efficiently than conventional Yorkshire pigs.  Source: University of Guelph

12  That could be good news for lakes, rivers, and ocean deltas, where phosphorous from animal waste can play a role in causing algal blooms. These outbursts of algae rapidly deplete the water's oxygen, creating vast dead zones for fish and other aquatic life.  Swine in the United States primarily eat corn, while those in Canada munch on cereal grains, including barley. But the kind of phosphorus that occurs naturally in those plants is indigestible without an enzyme called phytase, which pigs lack.  Most farmers feed their pigs this enzyme as a supplement. But ingested phytase isn't as effective at breaking down phosphorus as phytase created inside the pig would be, so a fair amount of the element gets flushed out in pig waste. That waste, in turn, can make its way into the water supply.

13  To make sure the modification would work in mammals, the team paired the E. coli genes with a mouse DNA promoter, a section of DNA that encourages replication of a specific segment—in this case the bacterial genes. Researchers then injected microscopic fertilized pig embryos with the mixture.  Early trials revealed that the bacterial enzyme was not only incorporated into the pig genome, it could be inherited by the genetically engineered pigs' offspring.  "We are now in the eighth generation of pigs, and it has been transmitted to all of those generations," said Cecil Forsberg, a University of Guelph microbiologist and lead researcher on the project.  "And from our testing, there is no change in the structure of the gene throughout those generations."  With the added genes, Enviropig is able to absorb more phosphorous from its feed, so less of the element ends up unused and excreted.

14 The Enviropig  Each one contains genes from mice and E.coli bacteria, which have been inserted into their DNA with absolute precision.  Those genes make a small but important difference to the way these pigs process their food.  Ordinarily, pigs cannot easily digest chemicals called phosphates. That means that the stuff that comes out of the back end can be toxic and damaging to the environment. The phosphates are easily washed into waterways, where they can produce a hugely fertile environment for plants. But the plants grow so rapidly that they choke the stream or river and cause huge damage to the ecosystem.  The genetic modification enables these pigs to digest phosphates, which means they are less polluting and cheaper to feed. 

15 Fluorescent mice

16 GloFish


18 Gen-etika

19 Transgenní rýže „ Zlatá“ rýže. Tato transgenní rýže obsahuje beta-karoten, který je zdrojem vitamínu A. Tato rýže pomáhá odstranit nedostatek vitamínu A u poloviny světové populace – která je závislá na rýži jako hlavní potravině. V současnosti trpí 70% dětí stáří do pěti let v jihovýchodní Asii nedostatkem vitamínu A. Jako vektor byl užit Ti plasmid. „Normální“ rýže

20 Genetické inženýrství u rostlin  Rostliny odolné chorobám, nebo se zpomaleným zráním  Díky tomu, že jsou prakticky všechny buňky totipotentní (=buňka je schopna dát vznik nové rostlině) se s rostlinami pracuje lépe než s živočichy  Jako vektor se užívá Ti plasmid z Agrobacterium tumefaciens  V přírodě tento plasmid způsobuje tumory rostlin  Pracuje se s Ti plasmidem, upraveným tak, že tumory nezpůsobuje

21 Genetické inženýrství u rostlin  Žádaný gen se vloží do Ti plasmidu  Plasmid se vloží do bakterie, která pak infikuje rostlinu, nebo se  plasmid přímo injikuje do rostlinných buněk

22 Genetické inženýrství u rostlin  Velkou nevýhodou Ti plasmidu je, že Agrobacterium napadá pouze dvouděložné  Přibližně polovina sklizně kukuřice a sóji v USA jsou GMO (geneticky modifikované organismy)  Mnoho transgenních rostlin obsahuje gen pro resistenci k herbicidům  Rostliny upravené k odolnosti vůči škůdcům snižují užívání chemických insekticidů  Snaha vytvořit rostliny schopné fixovat vzdušný dusík (=náhrada dusíkatých hnojiv)

23 Případná nebezpečí  Transgenní rostliny by mohly cizí geny (např. odolnosti proti pesticidům) nějak předat divokým plevelům – nebezpečí vzniku „superplevele“  Vzniká technologie pro vytvoření „geneticky modifikovaného člověka“

24 Synt-etika

25 Artificial life  Mycoplasma mycoides  1,08 Mb  „synthetic cell“ – only its genome is truly synthetic

26 Artificial life  in the near future we may switch from „reading“ the genomes to „writing“ them  the time of „digitizing biology“ is about to come  the software builds its own hardware

27 Artificial life  may one day  metabolize the oil  metabolize the carbon dioxide and thus reducing the greenhouse effect  making a new types of fuel  farmacology: making a new vaccines etc.

28 Artificial life critics  the potential benefits of synthetic organisms have been overstated.  By releasing these „synthetic organisms“ into areas of pollution, we may actually releasing a new kind of pollution.  We don't know how these organisms will behave in the environment.

29  "The Lego-ization of biology"

30 Diskuse

31 Modifikace stejně děláme...

32  "The Lego-ization of biology"

33 Biomedical Research  Bioterrorism  Bioerrorism  "superweed" etc.

34 Biomedical research  Precautionary Principle  When in doubt, pause (mostly Europe)  Proactionary Principle  When in doubt, go ahead  (Thomas Murray,

35 Biomedical Research  Bioterrorism  Bioerrorism  "superweed" etc.

36 Biomedical research  Precautionary Principle  When in doubt, pause (mostly Europe)  Proactionary Principle  When in doubt, go ahead  (Thomas Murray,

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