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Nature Inspired Technology G r o u p The Heart From physiology to ECG measurement and beyond.

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Prezentace na téma: "Nature Inspired Technology G r o u p The Heart From physiology to ECG measurement and beyond."— Transkript prezentace:

1 Nature Inspired Technology G r o u p The Heart From physiology to ECG measurement and beyond

2 Nature Inspired Technology G r o u p Lesson overview I.Introduction to the physiology of the heart Activation potential Basic anatomy II.ECG III.Devices for ECG measurement

3 Nature Inspired Technology G r o u p Electrophysiology of the cardiac muscle cell

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5 The anatomy of the heart and associated vessels

6 Nature Inspired Technology G r o u p The conduction system of the heart

7 Nature Inspired Technology G r o u p Propagation of activation front between a pair of extracellular electrodes

8 Nature Inspired Technology G r o u p Electrophysiology of the heart.The different waveforms for each of the specialized cells found in the heart are shown. The latency shown approximates that normally found in the healthy heart.

9 Nature Inspired Technology G r o u p The generation of the ECG signal in the Einthoven limb leads

10 Nature Inspired Technology G r o u p The generation of the ECG signal in the Einthoven limb leads

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13 Einthoven, Wilson and Goldberg’s precordial leads

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16 Holter  Dlouhé záznamy, 24-hodinové, zjednodušený svodový systém  Rozdíly proti standardnímu 12-ti svodovému EKG:  Nevýhody »Méně kanálů »Více šumu »Obtížná detekce P-vlny »Pohybové artefakty »Velká dynamika RR-intervalů  Výhody »Větší časový záběr »Lepší detekce arytmií »Pokrytí běžných lidských činností

17 Nature Inspired Technology G r o u p Holter  Demonstrace variability signálu při holterovském měření  Je třeba velké robustnosti jak u analýzy signálu tak při diagnostice

18 Nature Inspired Technology G r o u p Holter příklad  Roztřídění (clustering) beatů z holterovského EKG záznamu  Na základě změřených parametrů vypočítán medián  Cíl: Koherentní skupina pro další diagnostiku

19 Nature Inspired Technology G r o u p Mapy - příklady uspořádání elektrod

20 Nature Inspired Technology G r o u p  80 elektrod rovnoměrně rozložených na hrudníku a zádech pacienta (systém Cardiag)  pro předzpracování signálů bylo využito několikero metod, včetně metody vlnkové transformace  Na generovaných mapách se dají, stejně jako na signálu, hledat příznaky Mapy uspořádání elektrod

21 Nature Inspired Technology G r o u p  základní typ map definovaný  příklad potenciálové mapy z oblasti QRS komplexu Okamžikové potenciálové mapy

22 Nature Inspired Technology G r o u p  typ map vytvářený podle vztahu  příklad integrálové mapy z oblasti QRS komplexu Integrálové mapy

23 Nature Inspired Technology G r o u p  typ map vytvářený podle vztahu  příklad isochronní mapy časů trvání intervalů QT Isochronní mapy

24 Nature Inspired Technology G r o u p  typ map vytvářený podle vztahu  příklad rozdílové integrální mapy z oblasti QRS komplexu Rozdílové mapy

25 Nature Inspired Technology G r o u p Mapování 3D – inverzní úloha  Vyhledávání a zobrazení potenciálů srdce na samotném epikardu  Měření prováděno buď přímo v srdci  Nebo hledání rozložení potenciálů na srdci z povrchového rozložení  Vede na řešení inverzní úlohy  Hledání ložisek v objemu srdce

26 Nature Inspired Technology G r o u p Nové trendy v elektrokardiografii  Větší důraz na prevenci  Větší možnosti pacienta podílet se na kontrole svého zdravotního stavu  Nové způsoby měření EKG – senzory přímo v oblečení  Nové zpracování na mobilních telefonech  Telemedicínské aplikace

27 Nature Inspired Technology G r o u p Nové trendy v elektrokardiografii ▣ Sensorické tílko ▣ PBM ▣ Mobilní telefon ▣ Základna Healthcare Center GPRS Bluetooth

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34  An average heart pumps 2.4 ounces (70 milliliters) per heartbeat. An average heartbeat is 72 beats per minute. Therefore an average heart pumps 1.3 gallons (5 Liters) per minute. In other words it pumps 1,900 gallons (7,200 Liters) per day, almost 700,000 gallons (2,628,000 Liters) per year, or 48 million gallons (184,086,000 liters) by the time someone is 70 years old. That's not bad for a 10 ounce pump!  For more information on the human heart and related topics, check out the links on the next page.  What causes the sound your heart makes?  When someone listens to your heart with a stethoscope the sound is often described as - lub-dub lub-dub. The 1st heart sound (lub) is caused by the acceleration and deceleration of blood and vibration of the heart at the time of the closure of the Tricuspid and Mitral Valves. The 2nd heart sound (dub) is caused by the same acceleration and deceleration of blood and vibrations at the time of closure of the Pulmonic and Aortic Valves.  How many times does you heart beat?  The average heartbeat is 72 times per minute. In the course of one day it beats over 100,000 times. In one year the heart beats almost 38 million times, and by the time you are 70 years old, on average, it beats 2.5 billion times!  Does your heart rate change as we age?  Everyone's pulse (average heart rate per minute) changes as we age. Here is a chart of average pulse at different ages:  AgePulse  Newborn130  3 months140  6 months130  1 year120  2 years115  3 years100  4 years100  6 years100  8 years90  12 years85  adult  How much blood does your heart pump?  An average heart pumps 2.4 ounces (70 milliliters) per heartbeat. An average heartbeat is 72 beats per minute. Therefore an average heart pumps 1.3 gallons (5 Liters) per minute. In other words it pumps 1,900 gallons (7,200 Liters) per day, almost 700,000 gallons (2,628,000 Liters) per year, or 48 million gallons (184,086,000 liters) by the time someone is 70 years old. That's not bad for a 10 ounce pump!  For more information on the human heart and related topics, check out the links on the next page.

35 Nature Inspired Technology G r o u p  The AbioCor, developed by Abiomed, is a very sophisticated medical device, but the core mechanism of the device is the hydraulic pump that shuttles hydraulic fluid from side to side. To understand how it works, let's look at the various components of the system:  Hydraulic pump - The basic idea with this device is similar to the hydraulic pumps used in heavy equipment. Force that is applied at one point is transmitted to another point using an incompressible fluid. A gear inside the pump spins at 10,000 revolutions per minute (rpm) to create pressure.  Porting valve - This valve opens and closes to let the hydraulic fluid flow from one side of the artificial heart to the other. When the fluid moves to the right, blood gets pumped to the lungs through an artificial ventricle. When the fluid moves to the left, blood gets pumped to the rest of the body.  Wireless energy-transfer system - Also called the Transcutaneous Energy Transfer (TET), this system consists of two coils, one internal and one external, that transmit power via magnetic force from an external battery across the skin without piercing the surface. The internal coil receives the power and sends it to the internal battery and controller device.  Internal battery - A rechargeable battery is implanted inside the patient's abdomen. This gives a patient 30 to 40 minutes to perform certain activities, such as showering, while disconnected from the main battery pack.  External battery - This battery is worn on a Velcro-belt pack around the patient's waist. Each rechargeable battery offers about four to five hours of power.  Controller - This small electronic device is implanted in the patient's abdominal wall. It monitors and controls the pumping speed of the heart.  The AbioCor heart, which is composed of titanium and plastic, connects to four locations:  Right atrium  Left atrium  Aorta  Pulmonary artery  The entire system weighs about 2 pounds (0.9 kg). In the next section, you will learn how surgeons implanted the AbioCor heart during a seven-hour operation.

36 Nature Inspired Technology G r o u p  Until recently, the only option for many severe heart failure patients has been heart transplants. However, there are only slightly more than 2,000 heart transplants performed in the United States annually, meaning that tens of thousands of people die waiting for a donor heart. On July 2, 2001, heart failure patients were given new hope as surgeons at Jewish Hospital in Louisville, Kentucky, performed the first artificial heart transplant in nearly two decades. The AbioCor Implantable Replacement Heart is the first completely self-contained artificial heart and is expected to at least double the life expectancy of heart patients.  In this article, you will get an in-depth look at how this new artificial heart works, how it's implanted into a patient's chest and who might be a candidate for receiving one of these mechanical hearts. We will also compare the AbioCor heart to the artificial hearts that have failed in the past.

37 Nature Inspired Technology G r o u p  Heartbeat  Smaller animals have faster heartbeats. This is evident within a species as well, as the young beat their hearts faster than the adults. See "Early development" above for information about the early human heart rates. The Gray Whale's heart beats 9 times per minute, Harbour Seal 10 when diving, 140 when on land, elephant 25, human 70, sparrow 500, shrew 600, and hummingbird 1,200 when hovering. An ectothermic animal will usually have a slower, and more variable heartbeat than an endothermic animal of similar size.

38 Nature Inspired Technology G r o u p  he study of diseases of the heart is known as cardiology. Important diseases of the heart include:  Coronary heart disease is the lack of oxygen supply to the heart muscle; it can cause severe pain and discomfort known as Angina.  A heart attack occurs when heart muscle cells die because blood circulation to a part of the heart is interrupted.  Congestive heart failure is the gradual loss of pumping power of the heart.  Endocarditis and myocarditis are inflammations of the heart.  Cardiac arrhythmia is an irregularity in the heartbeat. It is sometimes treated by implanting an artificial pacemaker  Congenital heart defects.  If a coronary artery is blocked or narrowed, the problem spot can be bypassed with coronary artery bypass surgery or it can be widened with angioplasty.  Beta blockers are drugs that lower the heart rate and blood pressure and reduce the heart's oxygen requirements. Nitroglycerin and other compounds that give off nitric oxide are used to treat heart disease as they cause the dilation of coronary vessels.  At Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, 53-year-old Louis Washkansky on December 3, 1967 became the first human to receive a heart transplant (however he died 18 days later from double pneumonia). The transplant team was headed by Christiaan Barnard.

39 Nature Inspired Technology G r o u p  The heart (Latin cor) is a hollow, muscular organ in vertebrates that pumps blood through the blood vessels by repeated, rhythmic contractions, or a similar structure in annelids, mollusks, and arthropods. The term cardiac means "related to the heart", from the Greek kardia (καρδια) for "heart". The human heart is the most studied organ in biology.

40 Nature Inspired Technology G r o u p  So the heart is the beginning of life, the Sun of the Microcosm, even as the Sun deserves to be call'd the heart of the world; for it is the heart by whose virtue and pulsation the blood is moved, perfected, made apt to nourish, and is preserved from corruption and coagulation; it is the household divinity which, discharging its function, nourishes, cherishes, quickens the whole body, and is indeed the foundation of life, the source of all action."

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42 Nature Inspired Technology G r o u p Přehled prezentace OBECNÁ ČÁST  Úvod do Biomedicínských signálů  Vzorkování  Vzorkování – Shanon.  časová a frekvenční reprezentace signálu  Filtrace  Princip –  Příklady  Analýza EKG  Rozměřování signálu  Výběr příznaků  Diagnostika  Co umožňuje automatická diagnostika  Příklady PRAKTICKÁ ČÁST  12-ti svodové EKG  Holter  Holter v mobilu?  BSPM


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