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© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 1 Chapter 6: Inter-VLAN Routing Switched Networks.

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Prezentace na téma: "© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 1 Chapter 6: Inter-VLAN Routing Switched Networks."— Transkript prezentace:

1 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 1 Chapter 6: Inter-VLAN Routing Switched Networks

2 Chapter Inter-VLAN Routing Configuration 6.2 Troubleshooting Inter-VLAN Routing 6.3 Layer 3 Switching 6.4 Summary

3 Chapter 6: Objectives  Options for enabling inter-VLAN routing  Legacy inter-VLAN routing  Router-on-a-stick inter-VLAN routing  Troubleshoot inter-VLAN configuration issues  Troubleshoot IP addressing issues in inter-VLAN-routed environment  Inter-VLAN routing using Layer 3 switching  Troubleshoot inter-VLAN routing in a Layer 3-switched environment

4 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID Inter-VLAN Routing Configuration

5 Převzato z x0020x Začátek

6 Basic Configuration of VLANS, Switchports and InterVLAN Routing https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ojh8_BDcXyI

7 Routing Between VLANs  Traditional routing between VLANs Dříve: Pro každou VLAN připojenou k routeru musela být samostatná linka a samostatné rozhraní (= fyzický konektor) na routeru. Tj. tolik konektorů, kolik VLAN. Vzhledem k tomu, že router nemá moc ethernetových rozhraní, tak je to docela problém.

8  Subinterfaces in inter-VLAN routing: Router-on-a-Stick Routing Between VLANs Nyní: Router-on-a-Stick = Router na klacku. Všechny VLAN jsou k routeru připojené jedinou linkou přes jediný konektor a přes jediné rozhraní. Toto rozhraní je logicky rozděleno na tolik podrozhraní (subinterfaces), kolik je VLAN.

9 Configuring Inter-VLAN Routing  Configuring traditional inter-VLAN routing Dříve: Pro každou VLAN bylo nutno použít a konfigurovat samostatné rozhraní = fyzický konektor na routeru.

10 Configuring Inter-VLAN Routing  Configuring inter-VLAN routing with Router-on-a-Stick Nyní: Pro každou VLAN založíme jeden subinterface, dáme mu IP adresu, nastavíme encapsulation a pak celý interface se všemi jeho subinterfaces najednou zapneme. Tady vidíme, jak interface i všechny subinterfaces změnily „state to up“.

11 Configuring Inter-VLAN Routing  Physical Interface and Subinterface Comparison

12 Troubleshooting Inter-VLAN Connectivity Issues  Switch configuration Issues PC1 a F0/0 na R1 jsou v té samé podsíti (dobře). PC1 na F0/11 je ve VLAN10, zatímco F0/4 na S1 zůstal v Default VLAN (špatně). Proto PC1 nemá přístup na R1 a nemůže být směrován do jiných sítí. Řešení: Příkaz switchport access vlan 10 na F0/4 na S1.

13 Troubleshooting Inter-VLAN Connectivity Issues  Switch configuration Issues F0/5 na S1 jsme zapomněli konfigurovat jako trunk. Proto subinterfaces na R1 nejsou schopny komunikovat s S1 a směrování mezi VLAN nefunguje. Řešení: Příkaz switchport mode trunk na F0/5.

14  Router configuration issues Troubleshooting Inter-VLAN Connectivity Issues Subinterface F0/0.10 byl omylem nakonfigurován pro VLAN 100 místo VLAN 10. Proto PC1 ani jiné z VLAN10 se nedostanou na R1 a nemohou se dostat do jiných sítí. Řešení: Příkaz encapsulation dot1q 10 na F0/0.10.

15  IP Addressing Issues Troubleshooting Inter-VLAN Connectivity Issues Interface F0/0 má špatnou IP adresu: místo Proto PC1 se nikdy nedostane na R1 a nebude mít spojení s ostatními VLAN. Řešení: Příkaz ip address na F0/0

16  IP Addressing Issues Troubleshooting Inter-VLAN Connectivity Issues PC1 má špatnou IP adresu: místo Proto PC1 se nikdy nedostane na R1 a nebude mít spojení s ostatními VLAN. Řešení: IP adresu PC1 nastavit na

17  IP Addressing Issues Troubleshooting Inter-VLAN Connectivity Issues PC1 má špatnou masku podsítě:..../16 místo..../24. Proto si PC1 myslí, že je PC1 ve stejné podsíti jako PC3 s adresou PC1 při pokusu o spojení s PC3 nepošle svůj paket na R1, protože si myslí, že se jedná o spojení v rámci jedné podsítě.

18  Inter-VLAN routing = routing information between VLANs. Requires a router or a layer 3 switch.  Traditional inter-VLAN routing Requires multiple router interfaces that are each connected to separate VLANs  Router on a stick Uses router sub interfaces connected to a layer 2 switch Each Subinterface must be configured with: IP address Associated VLAN number Summary

19  Configuration of inter VLAN routing – Configure switch ports connected to router with correct VLAN – Configure each router subinterface with the correct IP address & VLAN ID

20 Převzato z x0020x Konec

21 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID Layer 3 Switching

22  Layer 3 switches usually have packet-switching throughputs in the millions of packets per second (pps).  All Catalyst multilayer switches support the following types of Layer 3 interfaces: Routed port Switch virtual interface (SVI)  High-performance switches, such as the Catalyst 6500 and Catalyst 4500, are able to perform most of the router’s functions.  Several models of Catalyst switches require enhanced software for specific routing protocol features. Layer 3 Switching Operation and Configuration Introduction to Layer 3 Switching

23  Today’s routing has become faster and cheaper and can be performed at hardware speed.  Routing can be transferred to core and distribution devices with little to no impact on network performance.  Many users are in separate VLANs, and each VLAN is usually a separate subnet. This implies that each distribution switch must have IP addresses matching each access switch VLAN.  Layer 3 (routed) ports are normally implemented between the distribution and the core layer. This model is less dependent on spanning tree, because there are no loops in the Layer 2 portion of the topology. Layer 3 Switching Operation and Configuration Inter-VLAN Routing with Switch Virtual Interfaces

24  By default, an SVI is created for the default VLAN (VLAN 1). This allows for remote switch administration.  Any additional SVIs must be created by the administrator.  SVIs are created the first time the VLAN interface configuration mode is entered for a particular VLAN SVI.  Enter the interface vlan 10 command to create an SVI named VLAN 10.  The VLAN number used corresponds to the VLAN tag associated with data frames on an 802.1Q encapsulated trunk.  When the SVI is created, ensure that the specific VLAN is present in the VLAN database. Layer 3 Switching Operation and Configuration Inter-VLAN Routing with SVIs (Cont.)

25  SVIs advantages include: Much faster than router-on-a-stick, because everything is hardware-switched and routed. No need for external links from the switch to the router for routing. Not limited to one link. Layer 2 EtherChannels can be used between the switches to get more bandwidth. Latency is much lower, because it does not need to leave the switch. Layer 3 Switching Operation and Configuration Inter-VLAN Routing with SVIs (Cont.)

26  A routed port is a physical port that acts similarly to an interface on a router.  Routed ports are not associated with any VLANs.  Layer 2 protocols, such as STP, do not function on a routed interface.  Routed ports on a Cisco IOS switch do not support subinterfaces.  To configure routed ports, use the no switchport interface configuration mode command.  Note: Routed ports are not supported on Catalyst 2960 Series switches. Layer 3 Switching Operation and Configuration Inter-VLAN Routing with Routed Ports

27  The Cisco Switch Database Manager (SDM) provides multiple templates for the Cisco Catalyst 2960 switch.  The SDM lanbase-routing template can be enabled to allow the switch to route between VLANs and to support static routing.  Use the show sdm prefer command to verify which template is in use.  The SDM template can be changed in global configuration mode with the sdm prefer command. Layer 3 Switching Operation and Configuration Configuring Static Routes on a Catalyst 2960

28 To troubleshoot Layer 3 switching issues, verify the following for accuracy:  VLANs VLANs must be defined across all the switches. VLANs must be enabled on the trunk ports. Ports must be in the right VLANs.  SVIs SVIs must have the correct IP address or subnet mask. SVIs must be up. SVIs must match with the VLAN number. Troubleshooting Layer 3 Switching Layer 3 Switch Configuration Issues

29 To troubleshoot Layer 3 switching issues, verify the following for accuracy:  Routing Routing must be enabled. Each interface or network should be added to the routing protocol.  Hosts Hosts must have the correct IP address or subnet mask. Hosts must have a default gateway associated with an SVI or routed port. Troubleshooting Layer 3 Switching Layer 3 Switching Configuration Issues (Cont.)

30 Chapter 6: Summary This chapter described and explained the following concepts:  Inter-VLAN routing, the process of routing traffic between different VLANs, using either a dedicated router or a multilayer switch  Legacy, router-on-a-stick, and multilayer switch inter-VLAN routing  Layer 3 switching, SVIs, and routed ports  Troubleshooting inter-VLAN routing with a router or a Layer 3 switch  Common errors involving VLAN, trunk, Layer 3 interface, and IP address configurations

31 Chapter 6: Summary

32 Presentation_ID 32 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential


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