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© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 1 Chapter 4: LAN Redundancy Switched Networks.

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Prezentace na téma: "© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 1 Chapter 4: LAN Redundancy Switched Networks."— Transkript prezentace:

1 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 1 Chapter 4: LAN Redundancy Switched Networks

2 Chapter Introduction 4.1 Spanning Tree Concepts 4.2 Varieties of Spanning Tree Protocols 4.3 Spanning Tree Configuration 4.4 First-Hop Redundancy Protocols 4.5 Summary

3 Chapter 4: Objectives  Issues with a redundant network  IEEE 802.1D STP operation  Different spanning tree varieties  PVST+ operation  Rapid PVST+  Configure PVST+ and Rapid PVST+  STP configuration issues  Purpose and operation of first hop redundancy protocols  Different varieties of first-hop redundancy protocols  IOS commands to verify HSRP and GLBP implementations

4 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID Spanning Tree Concepts

5 Redundancy in a Switched Network Role of redundancy in a hierarchical network Cesta z PC1 do PC4 normálně vede přes Trunk1. Když ten se pokazí, jede se přes redundantní (= navíc) cestu Trunk2 –> Trunk3. Když se Trunk1 vzpamatuje, opět se začne používat.

6 Redundancy in a Switched Network Cesta z PC1 do PC4: 1) Všechno funguje

7 Redundancy in a Switched Network 2) Pokazí se přístup do Distribution vrstvy Náhradní cesta

8 Redundancy in a Switched Network 3) Pokazí se spoj mezi Distribution a Core Náhradní cesta

9 Redundancy in a Switched Network 4) Pokazí se switch ve vrstvě Distribution Náhradní switch

10 Redundancy in a Switched Network 5) Pokazí se switch ve vrstvě Core Náhradní switch

11  Redundancy can disable a network  Zálohování může odstavit síť Ethernet frames do not have a time to live (TTL) like IP packets traversing routers. Ethernetové rámce nemají počítadla TTL, která by je po nějaké době obíhání zlikvidovala. Proto rámce mohou ve smyčkách obíhat donekonečna a stále se množit. Redundancy in a Switched Network

12 Možné problémy v zálohované síti Broadcast storms – při broadcastu se rámce ve smyčkách množí, až dojde k zahlcení sítě. Špatně naučené polohy účastníků – switch dostane frame ze správné strany, potom také smyčkou z druhé strany. Dvakrát doručené rámce – PC1 posílá rámec PC4. S2 ještě nezná MAC adresu PC4, proto rámec rozešle jako broadcast. Ten potom dojde jednou přes Trunk1, podruhé přes Trunk2 a Trunk3.

13 Presentation_ID 13 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential Otázka: Proč v síti s přepínači odpínáme záložní spoje, místo abychom je využili a zvýšili tak propustnost sítě v daném směru, jako to dělají směrovače? Odpověď: Směrovače mají mnohem lepší ponětí o topologii celé sítě. Používají chytré techniky (Split horizon, Poison reverse, Holddown timer), které zabraňují vzniku smyček. Když směrovač neví, co s paketem, pošle jej do default route, tj. vždycky jedním a jediným směrem. Když přepínač neví, co s framem, rozprskne jej jako broadcast a tím nastartuje jeho množení. Kromě toho, když už ke kolování paketu mezi směrovači dojde, poslední záchranou je omezený počet hopů (RIP: 16), nebo počítadlo TTL, které způsobí zabití a zahození bloudícího paketu. To přepínače neznají. Redundancy in a Switched Network

14 STP Operation Spanning-Tree Algorithm: Introduction  STP ensures that there is only one logical path between all destinations on the network by intentionally blocking redundant paths that could cause a loop.  A port is considered blocked when user data is prevented from entering or leaving that port. This does not include bridge protocol data unit (BPDU) frames that are used by STP to prevent loops.  The physical paths still exist to provide redundancy, but these paths are disabled to prevent the loops from occurring.  If the path is ever needed to compensate for a network cable or switch failure, STP recalculates the paths and unblocks the necessary ports to allow the redundant path to become active.

15 STP Operation Spanning-Tree Algorithm: Port Roles

16 STP Operation Spanning-Tree Algorithm: Root Bridge

17 STP Operation Spanning-Tree Algorithm: Path Cost

18 STP Operation 802.1D BPDU Frame Format

19 STP Operation BPDU Propagation and Process

20 STP Operation Extended System ID

21 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID Varieties of Spanning Tree Protocols

22 STP Overview List of Spanning Tree Protocols  STP or IEEE 802.1D-1998  PVST+  IEEE 802.1D-2004  Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) or IEEE 802.1w  Rapid PVST+  Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) or IEEE 802.1s

23 STP Overview Spanning Tree Protocol Characteristics

24 PVST+ Overview of PVST+ Networks running PVST+ have these characteristics:  A network can run an independent IEEE 802.1D STP instance for each VLAN in the network.  Optimum load balancing can result.  One spanning-tree instance for each VLAN maintained can mean a considerable waste of CPU cycles for all switches in the network (in addition to the bandwidth used for each instance to send its own BPDU).

25 PVST+ Port States and PVST+ Operation STP introduces the five port states:  Blocking  Listening  Learning  Forwarding  Disabled

26 PVST+ Extended System ID and PVST+ Operation  In a PVST+ environment, the extended switch ID ensures each switch has a unique BID for each VLAN.  For example, the VLAN 2 default BID would be (priority 32768, plus the extended system ID of 2).

27 Rapid PVST+ Overview of Rapid PVST+  RSTP is the preferred protocol for preventing Layer 2 loops in a switched network environment.  Cisco-proprietary enhancements to 802.1D, such as UplinkFast and BackboneFast, are not compatible with RSTP.  RSTP (802.1w) supersedes STP (802.1D) while retaining backward compatibility  RSTP keeps the same BPDU format as IEEE 802.1D, except that the version field is set to 2 to indicate RSTP, and the flags field uses all 8 bits.  RSTP is able to actively confirm that a port can safely transition to the forwarding state without relying on any timer configuration.

28 Rapid PVST+ RSTP BPDU

29 Rapid PVST+ Edge Ports

30 Rapid PVST+ Link Types

31 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID Spanning Tree Configuration

32 PVST+ Configuration Catalyst 2960 Default Configuration

33 PVST+ Configuration Configuring and Verifying the Bridge ID

34 PVST+ Configuration PortFast and BPDU Guard

35 PVST+ Configuration PVST+ Load Balancing

36 Rapid PVST+ Configuration Spanning-Tree Mode

37 STP Configuration Issues Analyzing the STP Topology

38 STP Configuration Issues Expected Topology vs. Actual Topology

39 STP Configuration Issues Overview of Spanning-Tree Status

40 STP Configuration Issues Spanning-Tree Failure Consequences

41 STP Configuration Issues Repairing a Spanning-Tree Problem  One way to correct spanning-tree failure is to manually remove redundant links in the switched network, either physically or through configuration, until all loops are eliminated from the topology.  Before restoring the redundant links, determine and correct the cause of the spanning-tree failure.  Carefully monitor the network to ensure that the problem is fixed.

42 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID First-Hop Redundancy Protocols

43 Concept of First-Hop Redundancy Protocols Default Gateway Limitations

44 Concept of First-Hop Redundancy Protocols Router Redundancy

45 Concept of First-Hop Redundancy Protocols Steps for Router Failover

46 Varieties of First-Hop Redundancy Protocols First-Hop Redundancy Protocols  Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP)  HSRP for IPv6  Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol version 2 (VRRPv2)  VRRPv3  Gateway Load Balancing Protocol (GLBP)  GLBP for IPv6  ICMP Router Discovery Protocol (IRDP)

47 FHRP Verification HSRP Verification

48 FHRP Verification GLBP Verification

49 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID Summary

50 Chapter 4: Summary  IEEE 802.1D is implemented on Cisco switches on a per-VLAN basis in the form of PVST+. This is the default configuration on Cisco switches.  RSTP can be implemented on Cisco switches on a per-VLAN basis in the form of Rapid PVST+.  With PVST+ and Rapid PVST+, root bridges can be proactively configured to enable spanning tree load balancing.  First-hop redundancy protocols, such as HSRP, VRRP, and GLBP provide alternate default gateways for hosts in the switched environment.

51 Presentation_ID 51 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential


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