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Drugs and lactation Jiří Slíva, MD., Ph.D.. Number of breast-feeded children in the U.S. AAP, 2005.

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Prezentace na téma: "Drugs and lactation Jiří Slíva, MD., Ph.D.. Number of breast-feeded children in the U.S. AAP, 2005."— Transkript prezentace:

1 Drugs and lactation Jiří Slíva, MD., Ph.D.

2 Number of breast-feeded children in the U.S. AAP, 2005

3 Lactation and adherence to treatment cca 90 % of women take some medication during the first week after delivery some medicaments, not exactly contraindicated during pregnancy, can decrease the intensity of lactation women tend to disrupt lactation in case of short-term therapy (e.g. antimicrobial agents), or they are non-compliant to prescribed medication approximately 7 % of women disrupt lactation up to 15 % of women do not start taking ATBs at all

4 Frequency of ADRs in lactating women prospective trial (n = 838) with breast-feeded children, whose mothers were taking various preparations no serious adverse reaction was recordedhowever 11.2 % of women described non-serious ADRs – women were using: antibiotics (19.3 %) analgesics (11.2 %) antihistaminics (9.4 %) sedatives/antidepressants/antiepileptics (7,1 %) commonly recorded postantibiotic diarrhea, drowsiness after strong analgesics, antiepileptics, antidepressants, or irritability after antihistaminics Data on file

5 Transfer of drugs to maternal milk depends on pharmacokinetics of drug in maternal body perfusion of mammary gland milk composition physico-chemical properties of drug pH of both plasma and milk amount of milk synthesis

6 Ad pH value average plasma pH is 7.4 average pH of breast milk is lower at 7.2thus… drugs that are weakly basic tend to concentrate to a greater extent in the more weakly acidic breast milk, as opposed to the less weakly acidic plasma since acids attract bases weak bases are nonionized in the maternal plasma => increased ability to be transferred into breast milk weak acids are ionized in the maternal plasma => low diffusion into breast milk i.e., antihistamines and erythromycin, drugs that are weakly basic, would be more likely to cross cell membranes from maternal plasma into breast milk than would penicillins, which are weakly acidic

7 Transfer of drugs to maternal milk almost every drug crosses into maternal milk mostly via passive diffusion (e.g. H 2 blockers, penicillins, nitrofurantoin and others.) also via active transport (e.g. cimetidine) transcellular diffusion breast-feeding can protect from abstinence syndrome in neonates, whose mothers were treated by barbiturates etc.

8 Drugs affecting milk formation Decrease bromocriptine estrogens androgens antihistaminics barbiturates apomorphine levodopa pyridoxine Increase metoclopramide reserpine imipramine fenothiazine sulpirid TSH

9 Drugs contraindicated during breast-feeding Cytostatics Cytostatics – immunosuppression, neutropenia, influence on growth?, cancerogenesis? Abused drugs Abused drugs – (amphetamine, cocaine, heroin, marijuana, LSD, alcohol, nicotine) – influence of CNS, maternal behavior Ergot alcaloids Ergot alcaloids – (bromocriptine decreases lactation, ergotamine – risk of vomiting, diarrhea, cramps) Iodides Iodides – risk of struma, hypothyreosis Radioactive isotopes Radioactive isotopes Gold Gold Lithium Lithium – high concentration in maternal milk, possible influence of CNS Estrogens Estrogens (oral contraceptives) Thiouracile Thiouracile – risk of struma, thyreosuppression, agranulocytosis

10 Drugs deserving increased caution Drugs affecting CNS Drugs affecting CNS – antidepressants, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines Drugs with recorded serious ADRs Drugs with recorded serious ADRs aspirin (metabol. acidosis), atenolol (beta-blocker), carbamazepine (sedation, hyperexcitability, cholestat. hepatitis), clemastine (hyperexcitability, drowsiness), phenobarbital (sedation, methaemoglobinemia), sulfasalazine (bloody diarrhea), metronidazole (potentially cancerogenic), TTC

11 Safe drugs during pregnancy

12 Antibiotics/chemotherapeutics amoxicilline, phenoxymethylpenicilline, benzylpenicilline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacine, clindamycine, doxycycline, gentamicine, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole or vancomycine easily cross to maternal milk according to available data, tetracyclins, chloramphenicol or aminoglycosides, eventually quinolones, can be used in specific cases, but mostly contraindicated

13 Antihypertensives ACE inhibitors, methyldopa, beta-blockers or calcium ion channel blockers are compatible with breastfeeding, i.e. they do not decrease blood pressure of children

14 Antihistaminics risk of irritability of children

15 Caffeine in common doses fully compatible with breastfeeding higher doses => risk of insomnia or irritation of children (half-life of caffeine: 3 to 7 hours)

16 NSAIDs, acetaminophen Ibuprofen Ibuprofen – compatible with breast-feeding, Acetylsalicylic acid Acetylsalicylic acid – compatible with breast-feeding expect of higher doses (risk of metabolic acidosis), Paracetamol Paracetamol – compatible with breast-feeding. Currently, it is discussed in relation with increased of higher prevalence of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

17 PREDNISON IN PAEDIATRIC PRAXIS AND ITS M AGISTRALITER P REPARATION

18 Indications of prednison e Respira tory system A l lerg y Ne ph rolog y On c olog y R heu matolog y H a ematolog y Dermatology Endo c rin ology O ph t h almolog y Gastroenterolog y Im m unolog y Common dosis pro infantibus ranges from 5 to 60 mg/d ay

19 Corticosteroids for children available in the Czech Republic Prednison e Prednison tbl. 5 a 20 mg Rectodelt rect. supp. 100 mg Methyl-prednizolon e :  Medrol tbl., Solu-Medrol i.v. Dexamethason e :  Dexamethason supp. (IVLP)  Dexamed, Dexona inj.  Fortecortin tbl. Hydro c orti s on e  Hydrokortison inj., tbl. Oral dose 5. 0 mg predni s on e is equal to 5. 0 mg predni s olon e, 4. 0 mg triamcinolonu, 0. 6 mg betamet h a s on e, mg dexamet h a s on e a mg hydro c orti s on e

20 F-CH vlastnosti p.o. kortikoidů Hodnocení 1-5 (1-nejhorší, 5-nejlepší), dospělí dobrovolníci  Testování obdobné testování vína KortikoidAromaChuťChuť po požití Prednison 1mg/ml1,81,311,27 Prednizolon 1mg/ml1,832,512,52 Dexamethason 0,5mg/5ml2,372,192,22 Prednison po čichové i chuťové stránce špatně tolerovaný, přetrvává hořká chuť po požití – zvracení, dávení u dětí – negativní vliv na compliance při dlouhodobém užívání. A taste comparison of three different liquid steroid preparations: prednisone, prednisolone and dexamethasone, John C.Mitchell a koll., Academic Emergency Meicine; april 2003;Vol.10, No.4

21 Lékové formy kortikoidů pro kojence a batolata - období do 2 let věku Tablety – „drcené“: - Hořká chuť - Provokace dávení, zvracení Čípky: - Provokace defekace - Interindividuální absorpce Parenterální formy - Invazivní podávání Suspenze: - Krytí hořké chuti - Lepší aplikovatelnost - Přesné dávkování

22 Prednison e suspen sion Raitt, J. R., Hotaling, W. H.: Preparation of stable prednisone suspension, Amer. J. Hosp. Pharm. 30: (Oct.) 1973.

23 Technologický postup 1)Příprava suspenzního vehikula  3% vodný roztok tragacant-acacie sliz  funkce: strukturální stabilizátor  technologie: řízené botnání (?)  anýzová silice  funkce: korigens odoru 2)Příprava korigencia  Sirupus simplex a Sirupus aurantii (2:1) 3)Příprava prednisonové suspenze

24 Prescription Rp. Prednisoni plv.…………………………..1,0 g Natrii benzoati 0,1% ,0 ml Tragacant-acacii mxt……………….20,0 ml Tragacant 3% Acacia 3% Natrii benzoat 0,1% Anisi (foeniculi) ol. 0,025% Sirupi ad…………………..…….100,0 ml Sirupi simplicis 67 % Sirupi aurantii 33 %

25 Koncentrace prednison susp. Prednisonová suspenze: 10 mg/1 ml Při dávkování 5–60mg/den odpovídá 0,5–6,0 ml suspenze

26 Stabilita Konzervans: 0,1% natrium benzoat (výhoda: užití suspenze i u dětí alergických na parabeny) Použitelnost: 1 měsíc (garantováno studií – viz výše) Uchovávání: v chladu (2–8 °C)

27 E conomic evaluation Vial (100 ml) CZK 1189, , , , , , , , , ,86 Total price Price per 5 mg Prednison tbl 20x5mg Kč Kč Prednison susp. 100ml Kč Kč

28 Useful URLs LACTMED: TOXNET: WHO: AAP:

29 Questions for independent work: 1. Try to decide: which of molecules will be transfered into maternal milk easier – warfarin or sumatriptan (based on plasma protein-binding?) 2. Try to find decide, how salicylates (i.e. acetylsalicylic acid etc.) cross into maternal milk 3. Try to find/recommend oral antiseptic drug compatible with both breast-feeding and pregnancy (AISLP, Micromedex etc.) 4. What kind of drugs (active substance/plants) are used/recommended in order to stimulate lactation? 5. Prescribe 10 suppositories with domperidone for infant (Dosis Therapeutica Singula = 10 mg)

30 BrandContentDosage Bylinný čaj s jestřabinou pro kojící maminky Meduňková nať, plod kopru, plod fenyklu, nať jestřabiny a nať dobromyslu 2–3x denně po celé období kojení Čaj pro kojící matkyNať jestřabiny, plod kmínu, fenyklu, nať meduňky, zlatobýlu, violky trojbarevné, list jitrocele. 2–3x denně po celé období kojení ČAJánek Na podporu kojeníNať jestřabiny lékařské, květ ibišku súdánského, plod fenyklu, listy maliníku, nať levandule lékařské 2–3x denně po celé období kojení Laktační – bylinný čaj porcovaný fenykl plod, anýz plod, kopr plod, aronie plod, kmín plod, jestřabina nať, mateřídouška nať, kopřiva list, heřmánek květ 3x denně po celé období kojení Laktační – bylinný čaj sypaný dtto3 x denně po celé období kojení. Nálev se připravuje z obsahu 1 čajové lžičky přelitím 1 / 4 l vroucí vody a nechá se v zakryté nádobě 15 min odstát. Laktofyt – bylinný sirupvoda, cukr, bylinné extrakty z anýzu, fenyklu, kmínu, pískavce, bazalky, meduňky a ibišku, kyselina jablečná, sorban draselný Užívá se jako sirup s vodou dle chuti. WELEDA Čaj pro podporu kojení kopřiva, semena anýzu, fenyklu a kmínu 3–6x denně po celé období kojení


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