Prezentace na téma: "Příjemce podpory – škola: Hotelová škola, Obchodní akademie a Střední průmyslová škola Teplice, Benešovo náměstí 1, p.o. Číslo projektu: CZ.1.07/1.5.00/34.0528."— Transkript prezentace:
Příjemce podpory – škola: Hotelová škola, Obchodní akademie a Střední průmyslová škola Teplice, Benešovo náměstí 1, p.o. Číslo projektu: CZ.1.07/1.5.00/34.0528 Název projektu: ICT ve výuce Číslo a název šablony klíčové aktivity: III/2 - Inovace a zkvalitnění výuky prostřednictvím ICT Název ověřovaného materiálu: Digitální učební materiál pro výuku anglického jazyka VY_32_INOVACE_JAA_210 Ročník: 3. Vzdělávací obor:65 – 42 – M/01 Hotelnictví Předmět: Anglický jazyk Tematická oblast: Gramatika Téma:Modals Jméno autora:Ing. Zdeněk Brabec Vytvořeno dne:13.10.2012 Metodický popis, (anotace) Výukový materiál slouží k seznámení, procvičování, upevnění znalostí specifického gramatického jevu a komunikativní dovednosti specifické slovní zásoby a frazeologie, doplněný o přiložený pracovní list, který žáci vypracovávají v hodině po shlédnutí prezentace.
Modals Modals in present and future.
Modal verbs such as CAN – MAY - MUST are frequently used in English. They are typical for present tenses I can swim but I can‘t dive. May I open the window? She may not come today. Must you go now? COULD is derived from CAN and it is used in a similar way in the present or it can be used for the past. Can I use your pen? – Could I borrow your pen? I could swim when I was 5. They couldn‘t help him to overcome his troubles. CAN‘T sometimes means negative certainty. You can‘t know her. She is new in the team.
CAN – MAY - MUST MAY – MIGHT are often used for permission or a lower level of certainty in the present or future. May I come a bit later? She may do it for us. I hope. He might study at university, he is not sure yet. MUST means a strong obligation of somebody‘s wish. I must be there before 6 pm. You must see me when you are back. We must try Pho, it is a fantastic Vietnamese soup. WARNING: CAN --- CAN NOT (CAN‘T, CANNOT) MAY – MAY NOT MUST - NEED NOT (NEEDN‘T) – You needn‘t go there with me. MUSTN‘T is similar to CAN‘T – Small kids mustn‘t use knives. MUST also means a positive certainty in present or near future. It must be John, nobody else has the key. She must be back before the meeting.
CAN – BE ABLE TO Not all situations allow us to use CAN / COULD For instance – in the future, present perfect, past perfect and so on. If you use TO BE ABLE TO instead of CAN in present, you sound more formal or official. I can do it. --- I am able to do it. I can‘t swim across the lake. I am not able to swim across the lake COULDN‘T has an identical meaning as WASN‘T / WEREN‘T ABLE TO. She couldn‘t come. – She wasn‘t able to come. I will be able to repair it during the next seven days. She has never been able to keep all her promises. Can you get there? – Are you able to get there?
MUST – HAVE TO Must is usually more personal HAVE TO sounds more official or formal and also means a kind of duty. I must go. - I have to be there before the train leaves. I the past*, future, present perfect and past perfect you must use HAVE TO HAVE TO – HAD TO – HAD TO NEGATIVE FORMS: DON‘T / DOESN‘T / DIDN‘T / WON‘T / WOULDN‘T+ HAVE TO HAVEN‘T / HASN‘T / HADN‘T + HAD TO QUESTION FORM DO / DOES / DID / WILL / WOULD + SUBJECT + HAVE TO HAVE / HAS / HAD + SUBJECT + HAD TO
Have to in examples: I have to get up early. She has to leave the country before her visa expires We had to sell the flat due to its bad technical condition. They did not have to accept our offer but they did. I will have to be at work till 8 due to the annual meeting. I‘ve just won the lottery. I will never have to work. We have never had to leave our positions without fighting. Do teachers have to be so strict? Does she have to copy all these documents? Did you have to say such cruel words? What time will you have to go? How often do you have to wash your hair? Have you ever had to tell a lie? Do you like having to get up early?
MAY – BE ALLOWED TO BE ALLOWED TO is often used in rules or instructions. Passengers are allowed to take only one piece of hand luggage on the board. Students are not allowed to smoke at school. We were allowed to use their water and food supplies. BE ALLOWED TO IS NEVER USED WITH IT – the target group is always identified or you is used instead. You are allowed to smoke here. Soldiers are not allowed to use toilets for officers.
WORKSHEET A short translation cannot do any harm: Umím mluvit čínsky. Uměl jsi jezdit na kole když ti bylo 5? Musíš tam chodit? Smím zavřít to okno, je tu průvan. Mohu si půjčit vaše pero? Nejsem schopen ti to říci. Nemohl si pomoci. Budeš schopen mě vyzvednout v práci? Musel jsi tam chodit? Musela to udělat? Budu muset navštívit zubaře. Ještě nikdy jsme nemuseli utíkat tak rychle. Cestujícím není dovoleno kouřit na palubě. Nesmíš tam chodit. Návštěvníkům není dovoleno sahat na vystavené předměty.
WORKSHEET Possible solution: I can speak Chinese. Could you ride a bike when you were 5? Must you go there? Do you have to go there? May I close the window, it is draughty here? May / Can / Could I borrow your pen? I am not able to tell you. I can‘t tell you. He could not help himself. He was not able to help himself. Can you / will you be able to – pick me up at work tomorrow? Did you have to go there? Did she have to do it? I will have to see my dentist. We have never had to run so quickly. Passengers are not allowed to smoke on the board. You mustn‘t go there. Visitors are not allowed to touch the exhibited objects.
REFERENCES AND SOURCES OF MATERIAL: References: MURPHY, Raymond. English grammar in use. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985, ISBN 05215377622. THOMSON, A.J.; MARTINET, A.V.. A Practical English grammar - fourth edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996, ISBN 0 – 19- 431348 – 4. PROCTER, Paul E. a kol. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. England: Longman Group UK Limited, 1992, ISBN 0582842239. SPENCER, David. Gateway B1+. England: Macmillan Publishers Limited, 2011, ISBN 978-0-230-41763-2. SOARS, Liz; SOARS, John. New Headway Intermediate Workbook - the third edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010, ISBN 978-0-19-438754-5. SOARS, Liz; SOARS, John. New Headway Intermediate Workbook. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010, ISBN 0-19-470225-1. 11