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English Literature. Outline  1. Anglo- Saxon Literature (Beowulf, Caedmon, Cynewulf, Alfred the Great))  2. Middle Ages (Wycliffe, Chaucer)  3. Elizabethan.

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Prezentace na téma: "English Literature. Outline  1. Anglo- Saxon Literature (Beowulf, Caedmon, Cynewulf, Alfred the Great))  2. Middle Ages (Wycliffe, Chaucer)  3. Elizabethan."— Transkript prezentace:

1 English Literature

2 Outline  1. Anglo- Saxon Literature (Beowulf, Caedmon, Cynewulf, Alfred the Great))  2. Middle Ages (Wycliffe, Chaucer)  3. Elizabethan Age (Shakespeare, Marlowe)  4. 17th, 18th century (Defoe, Swift, the Age of Reason)  5. Romanticism (Byron, Shelley, Keats, Scott, Wordsworth, Coleridge)  6. Realism (Dickens. Bromte sisters. Thackeray)  7. Oscar Wilde  8. 20th century

3 Anglo-Saxon Literature  5th century – 1066  3 Germanic tribes invaded Britain  Angles (occupied England), Saxons, Jutes  Anglo- Saxon language  A famous king - Alfred the Great (849- 901)

4 Alfred the Great  850 – invasion of Danes – Alfred the Great stopped the Danish advance  inspired Anglo– Saxon Chronicle  translated a number of Latin books into English books into English  improved education of people

5 Poetry  Cynewulf  Caedmon Anglo- Saxon poetry:  heroic narrative poems  poems on biblical themes  short riddles, elegies

6 Beowulf Beowulf  written in Old English  written sometime before the tenth century (7th/8th century)  describes the adventures of a great Scandinavian warrior of the sixth century.  A masterpiece  Epic poem 

7 Plot:  Hrothgar– King of the Danes is in trouble  His castle is visited by a terrible creature Grendel (lives in a lake), which kills his men  Beowulf attacks the creature and kills it  B. becomes a king  He also kills its the creature´s mother  He is wounded and dies

8 The main themes  Youthvs.Old age  RiseDecline  SuccessViolence  Courage

9  Head-rhyme: ALLITERATION (two or more words beginning with the same sound)  there is no rhyming  things are described indirectly and in combination of words e.g.: ship= sea goer, sea boat

10 Middle English Literature (1066-15th century)  started by the conquest in 1066 when Normans brought French into the country  everything slowed down 3 languages:  French – at the court, in commerce, government  Latin – clergy  Enlish – common people

11 Genres  Religious writings,  Latin writings,  Ballads,  Allegories John Wycliffe – inspired John Huss, criticized Roman Catholic Church

12 Secular Literature  Geoffrey Chaucer (1345?-1400)  The end of middle ages  A group of Pilgrims (30) travelling from London to Canterbury  The prologue gives vivid picture of 14th century society  All social levels are represented here



15  A merchant, lawyer, sailer, miller, cook,… are ordinary people, each of them has its own character  30 pilgrims assembled in an inn, are about to set off for the shrine of Thomas Beckett  each of them is supposed to tell 4 tales (but it´s unfinished)

16  e.g.:  The General Prologue The General Prologue The General Prologue  The Knight's Tale The Knight's Tale The Knight's Tale  The Miller's Prologue and Tale The Miller's Prologue and Tale The Miller's Prologue and Tale  The Cook's Prologue and Tale The Cook's Prologue and Tale The Cook's Prologue and Tale  The Man of Law's Prologue and Tale The Man of Law's Prologue and Tale The Man of Law's Prologue and Tale  The Wife of Bath's Prologue and Tale The Wife of Bath's Prologue and Tale The Wife of Bath's Prologue and Tale

17 Chaucer´s view of life:  very tolerant  full of humour  passion  against mediaval religious ascetism

18 Elizabethan Age  Elizabeth I (1533-1603)  the daughter of King Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn King Henry VIIIKing Henry VIII  A great flowering of arts and literature  Emancipation of secular life  Scholars returned to philosophy of Plato and Aristotle  one of the best loved monarchs, and one of the most admired rulers of all time

19 Elizabethan Drama  Golden age of drama  Theatres were for everybody  University Wits – a group of intellectuals who wrote plays (Ox., Camb. students)  e.g.: Ch. Marlowe, T. Kyd

20 William Shakespeare  (1564-1616)  dramatist and poet  the greatest of all playwrights  b. Strattford-upon- Avon  the son of a glovemaker  he married Anne Hatheway  in 1594 he joined the Lord Chamberlain´s Men, later called the King´s men  1599 – bought the Globe

21 Wrote 37 plays:  historical plays  comedies  tragedies  Retired to Strattford, died and buried there

22 Comedies  Dva šlechtici veronští (The Two Gentlemen of Verona) 1595 Dva šlechtici veronští1595 Dva šlechtici veronští1595  Jak se vám líbí (As You Like it) 1601 Jak se vám líbí1601 Jak se vám líbí1601  Komedie plná omylů (The Comedy of Errors) 1593 Komedie plná omylů 1593 Komedie plná omylů 1593  Konec vše napraví = Konec dobrý, všechno dobré (All's Well That Ends Well) 1603 Konec vše napravíKonec dobrý, všechno dobré1603 Konec vše napravíKonec dobrý, všechno dobré1603  Kupec benátský (The Merchant of Venice) 1597 Kupec benátský1597 Kupec benátský1597  Marná lásky snaha 1595 (Love's Labor's Lost) Marná lásky snaha1595 Marná lásky snaha1595

23  Mnoho povyku pro nic (Much Ado About Nothing) 1599 Mnoho povyku pro nic1599 Mnoho povyku pro nic1599  Sen noci svatojánské (A Midsummer Night's Dream) 1596 Sen noci svatojánské1596 Sen noci svatojánské1596  Večer tříkrálový (Twelth Night) 1602 Večer tříkrálový1602 Večer tříkrálový1602  Veselé paničky windsorské (The Merry Wives of Windsor) 1601 Veselé paničky windsorské1601 Veselé paničky windsorské1601  Zkrocení zlé ženy (The Taming of the Shrew) 1594 Zkrocení zlé ženy1594 Zkrocení zlé ženy1594

24 Tragedies  Antonius a Kleopatra (Antonius and Cleopatra) 1607 Antonius a Kleopatra1607 Antonius a Kleopatra1607  Hamlet 1604 Hamlet1604 Hamlet1604  Julius Caesar 1599 Julius Caesar1599 Julius Caesar1599  Král Lear (King Lear) 1606 Král Lear1606 Král Lear1606  Macbeth 1606 Macbeth1606 Macbeth1606  Othello 1605 Othello1605 Othello1605  Romeo a Julie (Romeo and Juliet) 1595 Romeo a Julie1595 Romeo a Julie1595  Timon athénský (Timon of Athens) 1608 Timon athénský1608 Timon athénský1608  Titus Andronicus 1594 Titus Andronicus1594 Titus Andronicus1594

25 Historical Plays  Jindřich IV. (Henry IV), 1598 - 1600 Jindřich IV.15981600 Jindřich IV.15981600  Jindřich V. (Henry V) 1599 Jindřich V.1599 Jindřich V.1599  Jindřich VI. (Henry VI), tři díly 1591 Jindřich VI.1591 Jindřich VI.1591  Jindřich VIII. (Henry VIII) 1611 Jindřich VIII.1611 Jindřich VIII.1611  Král Jan (King John) 1597 Král Jan1597 Král Jan1597  Richard II. 1596 Richard II.1596 Richard II.1596  Richard III. 1593 Richard III.1593 Richard III.1593

26 17th century  The Age of Reason  The Restoration of Monarchy 1660 and the Glorious Revolution = big changes in political and social life  technical progress, development of culture, manners, education  interest in philosophy  Silver Age of Drama  (elaborate staging, light effects, songs, women players)

27 John Milton  Paradise Lost  Paradise Regained

28 18th century  Development of journalism  Jonathan Swift – Gulliver´s Travels  Daniel Defoe – Robinson Crusoe  Henry Fielding – Tom Jones, History of a Foundling

29 Romanticism  Late 19th century  Strong use of feeling, exploration of nature and supernatural  Against logic and reason  Nature is the source of the truth and beauty

30  Lake Poets  (Wordworth, Coleridge) - 1st period of romanticism  Lyrical Ballads – the official beginning of romanticism  Inspiration from the Lake District in England

31 Romantic Revolt  The romantic movement culminated in the works of:  G.B. Byron (Childe Harold´s Pilgrimage),  P.B. Shelley (Prometheus Unbound),  John Keats  and Sir Walter Scott (Ivanhoe)

32 Victorian Age  Queen Victoria (1837-1901)  Britain – the strongest world power world power  Great industrial, financial, commercial power  Social inequalities and contrasts

33  Novel was the most influential literary form

34 Bronte sisters  Charlotte (Jane Eyre)  Emily (Wuthering Heights)  Anne (Agnes Grey)  Protest against everything inhuman and cruel (moral, psychological problems)  Jane Austin (Pride and Prejudice, Sense and Sensibility)

35 Critical Realism  True description of reality  Charles Dickens – life of poor people in th e 19th century  He himself suffered in his childhood and his experience can be found in his works  Combines comic and serious situations

36 His major novels:  Little Dorrit  The Pickwick Papers  Oliver Twist  David Copperfield  Great Expectations  Nicholas Nickleby

37 William Makepeace Thackery  Novels against snobbery,hypocrisy snobbery,hypocrisy Vanity Fair – compares the lives of two different characters: manipulating Rebecca and gentle, sentimental Amelia

38 Modern literature  Choose some of the authors you know and talk about them: E.g.:  Oscar Wilde G.B. Shaw  James Joyce J.R.R. Tolkien  Virginia WoolfGeorge Orwell  Rudyard Kipling Agatha Christie  Samuel Beckett R.L. Stevenson

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