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MOBILITY IN THE HUMAN SOCIATY AND ITS ENERGY CONSEQUENCES Zdeněk Čeřovský FEL ČVUT Praha Katedra elektrických pohonů a trakce K 314 - ČVUT Praha.

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Prezentace na téma: "MOBILITY IN THE HUMAN SOCIATY AND ITS ENERGY CONSEQUENCES Zdeněk Čeřovský FEL ČVUT Praha Katedra elektrických pohonů a trakce K 314 - ČVUT Praha."— Transkript prezentace:

1 MOBILITY IN THE HUMAN SOCIATY AND ITS ENERGY CONSEQUENCES Zdeněk Čeřovský FEL ČVUT Praha Katedra elektrických pohonů a trakce K ČVUT Praha

2 Content. Contemporary energy consumption in the society. How much energy is today for the mobility used. What is role of automobiles in total mobility. What is perspective of the automobile grow up? Energy consequences. Harmful influences for the environment. Can climate be changed by these influences? What is the role of engineering under these conditions? Conclusions. Katedra elektrických pohonů a trakce K ČVUT Praha

3 Contemporary energy consumption in the society. Survey of energy consumption and its grow during 16 years is on the picture. OECD is Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development: (34 importent states are included from Europe, America, Asia and other world parts. Group of states Energy consum ption grow Energy for mobility grow Mobility energy persenta ge OECD 1,21 1,4733% Sev. Am. 1,131,330% Evropa 1,11,3522% Energy consumption in OECD, North America and Evropy Energy consumption in OECD, North America and Europe Katedra elektrických pohonů a trakce K ČVUT Praha

4 Energy consumption in years in Czech Republic. In Czech Republic the energy consumption during years 2006 a 2007 sank. But the energy consumption for mobility rises steadily and is near 30%. Katedra elektrických pohonů a trakce K ČVUT Praha

5 Transport service in person-kms Role of automobile transport in total mobility. in Czech Republic Katedra elektrických pohonů a trakce K ČVUT Praha

6 Partial conclusion in this moment: Contemporary mobility consumes 30% of total energy used on the world. Very high energy consumption is consumed in road transport. Automobility produces the highest consumption part for human mobility. It can be expected that between ears 2015 and milliards automobile can be on the world. And we should add the quickly growing automobile number in the world. Katedra elektrických pohonů a trakce K ČVUT Praha

7 How we ensure energy for mobility? Energy for mobility that is overland mobility, sea mobility and air mobility comes from rude oil burning. Consequences are as follows: Crude oil resources are on the world unequally divided. That causes effort to ensure for the national economy access to them and sharpens the political nervousness. Green gas production is really high. It is unpleasant for cities. Papers even arose that it can influence the Earth climate. I am not able to accept it neither to refuse it. But nevertheless think we a little on it. Katedra elektrických pohonů a trakce K ČVUT Praha

8 Emission curves are very similar all over the world. They are only shifted. That means: When nothing will be done the situation will be worse. Annual Carbon Emissions by Region. Katedra elektrických pohonů a trakce K ČVUT Praha USA Canada EAST EUROPE WEST EUROPE CHINA INDIA AFRICA

9 Glacier melting measurements confirm It is broadly accepted that we live in period of climate worming. But what are the reasons? Can the human activity change the climate? Temperature rise on the Earth during 120 years Katedra elektrických pohonů a trakce K ČVUT Praha

10 Earth climate changed in the past, is changing now and will change in the future, Glacial and interglacial cycles are known. Some theories attempt to explain them but till now they are not fully explained. Nevertheless the human influence is here and cannot be refused.. But what are the reasons? 1.Is it caused by human activity? 2.Is it caused by other physical reasons? Definite answer to this question does not exist. May be that what is measured and what is watched is a result of both these phenomena's. Katedra elektrických pohonů a trakce K ČVUT Praha

11 WHAT TO DO ? Electrical Engineering on the world, and in China specially is developing electric hybrid and fully electric vehicles. Also at CTU in Prague the Research institute works on this theme. Let us describe the benefit and problems of this solution.

12 Influence of hybridization on energy efficiency usage When a vehicle is moving on New European Driving Cycle. FSI benzinový motor se vstřikem paliva TDI turbocharched diesel injection H2ICE spal. Motor na vodík FC palivový článek Elektromobil Pramen: Výzkumné centrum JB. Prof. Macek Katedra elektrických pohonů a trakce K ČVUT Praha Efficiency rises from 30% to 38% that means approximately plus 20%. Efficiency of full electric driven vehicles reaches 70%

13 The hybrid vehical deminishes the CO 2 production. Full electric vehical does not produce CO 2 on the place where it is driving.. But CO 2 is produced in electric plant from which batteries are charched. Katedra elektrických pohonů a trakce K ČVUT Praha

14 Comparison of CO 2 production of full electric vehicle when battery is charged in EU electric plant mix or French electric plant mix Well to Tank CO2 [g/km] v NEDC Tank to Wheels CO2 [g/km] v NEDC Total emissions CO2 [g/km] v NEDC Vehicle with internal combustion engine: Electric vehicle: EU- mix % Nuclear % Renewable 53% Fossil French mix % Nuclear % Renewable 5% Fossil í Katedra elektrických pohonů a trakce K ČVUT Praha

15 Conclusion Mobility is the largest energy consumer30% from total energy consumption. Road traffic (automobiles)80% from mobility energy Energy for road traffic is gained from crude oil Oil is nonreversible energy carrier. Energy sources are objects of international interest. Annual Carbon Emissions are 6400 metric tons We live in time of climate worming. Reasons are not known CO2 production is so high that it could be one of serious reasons. Scientific development brings significant results Hybrid vehicles diminish fuel consumption and emission production 10% Electric vehicles have energy efficiency as much as 70%. Emission production is 80% lower Action radius is only approximately 150km. Katedra elektrických pohonů a trakce K ČVUT Praha

16 Thank you for your attention Katedra elektrických pohonů a trakce K ČVUT Praha

17 Typ zdroje primární energie Katedra elektrických pohonů a trakce K ČVUT Praha

18 Fakulta elektrotechnická ČVUT v Praze – K ELEKTROMOBILITA Výchozí parametry: Spotřeba vozidla: 12,5 kWh/100 km (bez přídavných spotřebičů při průměrné rychlosti 25 km/h) Hmotnost vozidla (včetně řidiče): kg Hmotnost baterie (po celou sledovanou dobu) : 200 kg Očekávané trendy v dojezdu automobilu s NiMH a Li-Ion akumulátory

19 Fakulta elektrotechnická ČVUT v Praze – K ELEKTROMOBILITA Úrovně nabíjecích výkonů v závislosti na velikosti vozidla a nabíjecí době Potřebné nabíjecí výkony pro rychlé nabíjení elektrických vozidel již nejsou běžně dostupné v domovní napájecí síti. Pro tyto výkony je nutné vybudovat speciální nabíjecí stanice s přípojkami na úrovni VN 22 kV. Než bude tato infrastruktura vybudována, najdou uplatnění autarkické hybridní pohony (HEV), které nevyžadují žádnou změnu infrastruktury. Řešitelné jsou pouze PHEV s nabíjecí dobou 6 -8 hodin výkonem cca 2-3 kW.

20 Katedra elektrických pohonů a trakce K ČVUT Praha Seznam pořadí velikosti pro specifickou hustotu energie Závažnost J / (kg)JkgSpecifická hustota energieMetoda ukládání Nádeník (na ten den) 4Pata-generátor stávky používat Electrostrictive polymerypolymery NiMHNiMH dobíjitelné baterie 6.12Kyselina vedeníKyselina vedení autobaterie 6.3Li-iontLi-iont baterie hlídání palivo dřeva 17 BílkovinaBílkovina (obsahuje o 4 výživné kalorie na gram) UhlohydrátyUhlohydráty (obsahuje o 4 výživné kalorie na gram) 25ethylalkohol 29AlkoholAlkohol (obsahuje o 7 výživné kalorie na gram) 38TukTuk (obsahuje o 9 výživné kalorie na gram) 44BenzínBenzín (benzín) 120Vodík

21 Pro mobilitu se spotřebovává asi 30% celkového množství energie.

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