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ISS Konstruované znaky, indexy: Harmonizace proměnných - problémy a východiska Semináře ke kurzu Analytické metody výzkumu Jindřich Krejčí.

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Prezentace na téma: "ISS Konstruované znaky, indexy: Harmonizace proměnných - problémy a východiska Semináře ke kurzu Analytické metody výzkumu Jindřich Krejčí."— Transkript prezentace:

1 ISS Konstruované znaky, indexy: Harmonizace proměnných - problémy a východiska Semináře ke kurzu Analytické metody výzkumu Jindřich Krejčí

2 ISS Analytické metody výzkumu, semináře Str. 2 Literatura  Harkness, J.A., M. Braun, B. Edwards, T.P. Johson, L. Lyberg, P.P. Mohler, B.-E. Pennel, T. Smith. (eds.) Survey Methods in Multinational, Multiregional, and Multicultural Contexts. Hoboken: Wiley.  Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik, Wolf (eds.) Advances in Cross-national Comparison. A European Working Book for Demographics and Socio-Economic Variables. NY: Kluwer.  ZUMA-Nachrichten spezial 3, Cross-Cultural Survey Equivalence, J. Harkness (eds.), ZUMA 1998, chriften/zuma_nachrichten_spezial/znspezial3.pdf

3 ISS Obsah  pojmy  příklad 1. - srovnatelnost šetření: domácnost respondenta  příklad 2. - mezinárodní klasifikace: vzdělání  příklad 3. - procedura: harmonizace v projektu SHARE Analytické metody výzkumu, semináře Str. 3

4 ISS Analytické metody výzkumu, semináře Str. 4 Harmonizace dat - standardizované klasifikace  konstrukce indexu: teoretický koncept, vývoj nástroje, testování  standardizovaná řešení - srovnatelnost  strategie harmonizace proměnných metodika šetření, nástroj sběru dat, proměnné ex-ante: předchází sběru dat ex-post: po sběru dat input: všechna šetření stejné procedury output: shodný cíl, rozdílné postupy dosažení  princip ekvivalence procedurální ekvivalence: „objektivní“ srovnatelnost otázek/postupů měření interpretativní ekvivalence: „subjektivně pojatá“ srovnatelnost významů (jak respondenti chápou podněty)

5 ISS Analytické metody výzkumu, semináře Str. 5 ekvivalence ≠ překlad 30. How often do you visit a holy place for religious reasons such as going to [shrine/temple/church/mosque]? Please do not count attending regular religious services at your usual place of worship, if you have one. Never Less than once a year About once or twice a year Several times a year About once a month or more

6 ISS Příklad 1: Srovnatelnost proměnné domácnost respondenta  The Relevance of ‘Private Household’ for Cross-Cultural Survey Comparison (Uwe Warner & Jürgen H.P. Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik) Analytické metody výzkumu, semináře Str. 6

7 ISS  household in the European social survey, 1-st wave, 2002  "input harmonisation"  ESS definition at instructions for interviewers: "One person living alone or a group of people living at the same address (and have that address as their only or main residence), who either share at least one main meal a day or share the living accommodation (or both). Included are: people on holiday, away working or in hospital for less than 6 months; school-age children at boarding school; students sharing private accom-modation. Excluded are: people who have been away for 6 months or more, students away at university or college, temporary visitors." (European Social Survey, 2002: Project Instructions (PAPI), p.11). taken from England's Statistical Office, problematic, revised by ESO  participating countries: simple questions, different question wording interviewers: no national instructions on HH definition no proper clarification to respondents  respondents free to use their own definitions Analytické metody výzkumu, semináře Str. 7

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10 ISS The fictional extended family comprises 9 persons: - a married couple (grandfather and grandmother) - with two adult sons (one is an uncle, the other is a father) - of whom one is married (to wife/mother) with three children (children nos. 1, 2, 3); - the eldest of these children, a daughter, is also married (to son-in-law) This fictional extended family is spread over five to six dwellings: - The grandparents live in their own apartment but in the same house and at the same address as their son and daughter-in-law – the father and mother. - The father and mother and their youngest child (child no. 3, under 14) live in the one apartment. However, the father is home only at the weekends because his place of work is a four-hour drive from the family dwelling. The father has a secondary residence at his place of work. - Child no. 1, a daughter, has her own family and lives together with her husband – the son-in-law. - Child no. 2 (14 and over) is a student and lives at the place of study in a student residence. - The uncle has his own dwelling in the same city as the grandparents but in a different quarter. Analytické metody výzkumu, semináře Str. 10

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12 ISS Str. 12

13 ISS Analytické metody výzkumu, semináře Str. 13 Household(s) in the Czech Republic  Census - Czech Statistical Office dwelling household - persons living together in one dwelling housekeeping household - persons living together, common housekeeping (main costs paid jointly) census household (household) - persons living together in one dwelling on the basis of their kinship or other relationships within one housekeeping household i.e. a housekeeping household can be formed of one or more census households

14 ISS Analytické metody výzkumu, semináře Str. 14 Types of household  Complete family household: a married couple or marriage de facto - with children or without them  Incomplete family household: a single parent with at least one child  Multi-member non-family household: two or more persons, relatives or not, common housekeeping, do not form a family household  Household of an individual  Head of household: in a complete family always the husband (common-law husband) regardless who is the user of the dwelling; in incomplete families of two generations always a parent; in three- generation families a member of the middle generation; in multi-person non-family households a person, who was marked as a head of household on common budget  Dependent children: persons aged 0-25 years, who are economically inactive and live at least with one of the parents.

15 ISS Analytické metody výzkumu, semináře Str. 15 Practice in survey research  sampling - definitions influenced by survey methods - i.e. connected to identification of housing unit  questions on HH members  problems, e.g.: residency de jure vs. de facto (inheritance of lease contracts...) younger people may have unclear ties with household more different definitions in one survey

16 ISS Analytické metody výzkumu, semináře Str. 16 Příklad 3 - mezinárodní klasifikace Education  degree, years of education  standardised classification different systems in countries (and in some areas within countries) different systems in different time periods in one country more dimensions (fields/types of education), formal education vs. other; full degrees/interstages,...  practice in survey research national specific variables (simple/detailed) transformation into international classifications ( ISCED-97, CASMIN) different solutions at different projects (ISSP, EVS, WVS, ESS, PISA, IALS, SSEE,...)

17 ISS Analytické metody výzkumu, semináře Str. 17

18 ISS ISCED-97  Level 0: Pre-primary education  Level 1: Primary education or first stage of basic education  Level 2: Lower secondary or second stage of basic education 2A: direct access to Level 3 (3A or 3B) in a sequence leading ultimately to tertiary education; 2B: direct access to Level 3C; 2C: direct access to the labour market.  Level 3: Upper secondary education 3A: direct access to Level 5A; 3B: direct access to Level 5B; 3C: not designed to lead directly to Levels 5A or 5B, but rather to the labour market or to Level 4 or other Level 3 programmes  Level 4: Post-secondary non-tertiary education 4A: preparation for entry to Level 5; 4B: do not give access to Level 5 (labour market entry).  Level 5: First stage of tertiary education 5A 5B  Level 6: second stage of tertiary education  Guidelines:

19 ISS Str. 19 Diagram of CZ education system

20 ISS Analytické metody výzkumu, semináře Str. 20 Czech national classification  KKOV (classification of elemental fields of education), (JKOV) two dimensions: fields and degrees (five-digit code) not fully transferable into ISCED-97 => double coding A: no education B: incomplete primary (at least first stage of primary) C: primary D: lower secondary vocational E: lower secondary vocational with apprenticeship certificate H: secondary technical with apprenticeship certificate J: secondary technical no diploma or certificate K: complete secondary general (academic - gymnazium) L: complete secondary vocational with diploma (school-leaving exam) M: complete secondary technical with diploma N: higher technical (follow-up courses, conservatories) R: tertiary - bachelor T: tertiary - master V: doctoral

21 ISS Analytické metody výzkumu, semináře Str. 21 ISCED - 97  Czech standard by the law i.e. Czech version, handbook, guidelines, transformation diagrams...  problems compatibility of historical educational systems ISCED-97 constructed for systems in 1997, diagrams available only for 1997 and newer, but most of respondents studied before 1997 different meaning of terms Czech primary is ISCED-97 lower secondary => errors (e.g. SIALS) if reduced ISCED-97, crucial information is missing collapsing Czech secondary no diploma & secondary with diploma collapsing types of education (connection betw. programmes vs. types) collapsing bachelor and master degrees (vs. empty categories) differentiation betw. 0 "incomplete primary" 1 "1 -st stage of primary"

22 ISS Str. 22 Example: European Social Survey national specific education -> reduced ISCED-97

23 ISS Str. 23

24 ISS Str. 24 CASMIN

25 ISS Str. 25 CASMIN: Social Stratification in Eastern Europe After 1989 (1993)

26 ISS Analytické metody výzkumu, semináře Str. 26 Příklad 3: PROCES HARMONIZACE  SHARE (Survey of health Ageing and Retirement in Europe) S. Stuck: Harmonisation accross countries in SHARE

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