Prezentace na téma: "Ing. Zuzana Balounová, PhD."— Transkript prezentace:
1 Ing. Zuzana Balounová, PhD. SystematikaCITES rostlin1/2008Ing. Zuzana Balounová, PhD.
2 CITES a rostliny CITES and Plants 1 Slide 1: CITES and Plants The aim of this presentation is to give an introductory outline of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of wild fauna and flora, more commonly known as CITES, or the Washington Convention.While the Convention applies to both plants and animals, this presentation will be restricted to plants.
3 Obsah Cíle a uplatňování Washingtonské konvence CITES and Plants2ObsahCíle a uplatňování Washingtonské konvenceRostliny chráněné CITESProsazování konvenceSlide 2: What This Presentation Will CoverWe will look at the following topics:the aims and implementation of the Convention;the plant groups covered by CITES; and,the enforcement of the Convention.[Note to speaker: The image shows artificially propagated Euphorbia bupleurifolia plants (Appendix II).]
4 Aims and Implementation 3 CITES and PlantsAims and Implementation 3Cíle a realizace
5 Proč chránit plané rostliny? CITES and PlantsAims and Implementation 4Proč chránit plané rostliny?Nekontrolovaný mezinárodní obchod s „divokými“ rostlinami ohrožuje přežití jejich populací v příroděSlide 4: Why Protect Wild Plants?Many plant species are highly desirable, whether for aesthetic reasons, or for specific purposes such as medicinal properties, food or timber.While it is possible to artificially propagate many plant species, this does not apply to all species. In some cases, specialist collectors and hobbyists are more interested in obtaining wild plants collected from their natural habitats, than artificially propagated specimens. Therefore some plants may be collected in very large numbers from the wild to supply demand, endangering their very existence.Wild plants are an important resource which require management to ensure their long time survival. CITES provides the mechanism to support a sustainable international trade in plant resources.
6 Roční obrat mezinárodního obchodu s volně žijícími živočichy a planě rostoucími rostlinami(2002, bez rybolovu a těžby dřeva)je cca 15 mld USDPředpokládaný objem nelegálního obchodu představuje dalšíchcca 5 mld USD
7 Roční import živých exemplářů orchidejí do USA: 18 mil. USDdo Evropy cca: 6 mil. USD
8 Objem ročního legálního obchodu s druhy v přílohách k CITES:opice ks živí ptáci mil. ks kůže plazů 10 mil. ks z toho kajmanů 1,5 mil. ks kožešiny 15 mil. ks tropické ozdobné ryby 350 mil. ks divoké orchideje 2 mil. ks cibulky sněženek 30 mil. ks
9 Objem mezinárodního obchodu s rostlinami chráněnými CITES (ks) Sněženky, živé a cibulkyKaktusy, živéOrchideje, živéBramboříky, živé a hlízyTropické dřevinyMahagon, dřevo (m3)Pericopsis, dřevo (m3)Gonystylus, dřevo (m3)
10 Hodnoty globálního obchodu s produkty živé divoké přírody v roce 2005 Léčivé rostliny miliarda milionůOzdobné rostliny 11 miliard ,2 miliardyDřeviny miliard miliardCelkem(včetně zvířat) ,5 miliardy miliardy
11 Pašování mezinárodně chráněných organismů: živé exempláře včetně vývojových stádiíkožešiny, kůže, výrobky z nichčásti těl jako suvenýryvýrobky tradiční asijské medicínygurmánské specialitysurovinyetnografické artefakty
12 = odhadem 10 % skutečnosti V ČR v roce 2000 zabavenocca exemplářů,= odhadem 10 % skutečnosti
13 Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species of Flora and FaunaWashington 1973
14 Washingtonská úmluvaUstanovena 1973 z iniciativy IUCN (ochrana přírody)platnost odČR v roce 1993 jako 117. člen2008: 171 zemí
15 CITES and PlantsAdditional Slides 49Členské státy W. úmluvy2008200319951985197520406080100120140160+Slide 49: Parties to the ConventionCITES was established in 1973 as a result of an initiative by the IUCN - the World Conservation Union, based in Switzerland.The Convention entered into force on 01 July Today, there are over 160 Parties to CITES.In the preamble to the text of the Convention, the Parties:recognise that fauna and flora are an irreplaceable part of the natural systems of the earth which must be protected for this and generations to come;recognise the scientific, cultural and economic importance of fauna and flora in different countries;acknowledge that peoples and states are the best protectors of their own biodiversity;understand that international co-operation is essential for the protection of certain species of wild fauna and flora against over-exploitation through international trade.[Note to speaker: For an update on the number of CITES Parties check the official CITES website at This is an alternative format for slide 6.]
16 Signatáři konvence CITES CITES and PlantsAims and Implementation 6Signatáři konvence CITESSlide 6: Parties to the ConventionCITES was established in 1973 as a result of an initiative by the IUCN - the World Conservation Union, based in Switzerland.The Convention entered into force on 01 July Today, there are over 160 countries that are Parties to CITES.In the preamble to the text of the Convention, the Parties:recognise that fauna and flora are an irreplaceable part of the natural systems of the earth which must be protected for this and generations to come;recognise the scientific, cultural and economic importance of fauna and flora in different countries;acknowledge that peoples and States are the best protectors of their own biodiversity;understand that international co-operation is essential for the protection of certain species of wild fauna and flora against over-exploitation through international trade.[Note to speaker: For an update on the the number of CITES Parties check the official CITES website at See slide 49 for an alternative format for this slide.]členové 2008nečlenové 2008
17 Aims and Implementation 5 CITES and PlantsAims and Implementation 5Cíle úmluvyRegulovat a monitorovat mezinárodní obchod vybraných druhů živočichů a rostlinZajistit aby tento obchod neohrožoval přežití populací těchto druhů v příroděSlide 5: Aims of the ConventionThe Convention aims to regulate and monitor the international trade in selected species of plants and animals to ensure that it does not endanger the survival of populations in the wild.The international trade in listed species is regulated by means of a permit system which allows exporting countries to set trade at levels which they consider to be sustainable.
18 Management - ministerstvo CITES and PlantsAims and Implementation 7Orgány CITESSlide 7: CITES AuthoritiesCITES is an international treaty to which only countries may become a Party.Under the terms of the Convention, each Party is required to appoint one or more Management Authorities, and at least one Scientific Authority.The Management Authority, always a government department, executes the provisions of the Convention and is responsible for issuing CITES permits.The Scientific Authority provides scientific advice to the Management Authority on applications for CITES permits and may also advise on trade and certain policy matters. The most important task of the Scientific Authority is to provide advice to the Management Authority on whether the export, and in some cases the import, of a plant will be detrimental to the survival of the species in the wild.The CITES Secretariat based in Geneva, Switzerland, co-ordinates and assists the Parties with the implementation of the Convention.[Note to speaker: For an up to date list of CITES Management Authorities and Scientific Authorities check the CITES website atManagement - ministerstvoVědecký orgán CITESSekretariát CITESGeneva (Švýcarsko)
19 International Environment House, CITES and PlantsFurther Information 47CITES Secretariat,International Environment House,Chemin des Anémones,CH-1219 Châtelaine,GenevaSwitzerlandTel: (+4122) /40Fax: (+4122)URL:Slide 47: Further InformationThe Secretariat of the Convention is located in Geneva, Switzerland. It helps the Parties to implement CITES by providing interpretation of the provisions of the Convention, and advice on its practical implementation.The Secretariat also conducts a number of projects to help to improve the implementation, such as training seminars, or to examine the status of species in trade, to ensure that their exploitation remains within sustainable limits. Some of the Secretariat's projects are designed to provide assistance to the Parties in preparing national legislation to implement the Convention.The functions of the Secretariat are laid down in Article XII of the text of the Convention.You can also contact the CITES Management Authority in your own country for details on national implementation of the convention. Get the details of your national CITES Management Authority from the CITES website at org.For further information please contact the CITES Secretariat.
20 CoPs (Conference of the parties) komise (committiees) CITES and PlantsAims and Implementation 8CoPs (Conference of the parties) komise (committiees)Slide 8: CoPs and CommitteesA meeting of the Conference of the Parties (CoP) to CITES takes place every 2-3 years and is an opportunity for the Parties to amend the Appendices, and to discuss policy and enforcement matters. At a CoP, Parties are represented by official Government delegations. All Parties have one vote and equal voting rights.Proposals to amend the list of taxa included in the Appendices may be tabled by Parties at a CoP, following a consultation process. To be accepted, a proposal must gain a two thirds majority of the votes cast. Non-governmental and intergovernmental organisations may also participate at CoPs, but do not have voting rights.In between CoPs, several technical Committees exist including the Plants Committee.The Plants Committee provides advice and guidance to the CoP, other Committees, working groups and the Secretariat on all aspects relevant to the international trade in CITES listed species. The actual Committee is made up of elected individuals from each of the six CITES regions, and only they have voting rights. Representatives of the Parties, non-governmental organisations, trade and conservation bodies also participate in the meeting. Observers play an active and vital role in the work of the Plants Committee.[Note to speaker: To keep up to date on negotiations at CITES meetings and to view images of the events check the Earth Negotiations Bulletin. You can link to ENB via the CITES website atKomise pro rostliny
21 Národní orgány CITES Funkce orgánu Management (MŽP): Additional Slides 55Národní orgány CITESFunkce orgánu Management (MŽP):Representuje stát na CITES shromážděníPředkládá návrhy COPPřijímá informace od Vědeckého orgánu (AOPK)Přrdkládá roční zprávuVydává permity a certifikátySlide 55: National CITES AuthoritiesAccording to Article IX of the text of the Convention, each Party shall designate for the purpose of the Convention one or more Management Authorities competent to grant permits or certificates on behalf of that Party; and one or more Scientific Authorities.The functions of the Management Authority include:representing the Party at CITES meetings, e.g. the Conference of the Parties;the preparation of proposals for the Conference of the Parties;receiving input from the Scientific Authority;preparing and submitting annual reports on CITES transactions;disseminating information to all involved in CITES implementation;preparation and circulation of official information on the Convention; and,issuing permits and certificates.
22 Národní orgány CITES Funkce Vědeckého orgánu (AOPK): Additional Slides 56Národní orgány CITESFunkce Vědeckého orgánu (AOPK):Radí a doporučuje MA vhodnost exportuDoporučuje exportní kvótyPředkládá návrhy COPReviduje návrhy COPRadí MA ohledně umělého rozmnožováníSlide 56: National CITES AuthoritiesThe functions of the Scientific Authority include:advising the Management Authority whether the export of specimens is detrimental to the survival of the species in the wild;advising on national quotas for export;assisting the Management Authority in the preparation of proposals to amend the CITES Appendices;reviewing proposals to amend the Appendices submitted by other Parties and making recommendations to the Management Authority; and,providing advice to the Management Authority on the facilities for artificial propagation.For further information on national CITES Authorities, please check the CITES Secretariat website:
23 Welwitschia mirabilis Aims and Implementation 9PřílohyAppendix IAppendix IIAppendix IIIPaphiopedilum sp.Welwitschia mirabilisCedrela odorataSlide 9: The AppendicesAt the core of the Convention are three lists of species, or Appendices. There are over 25,000 plant species subject to CITES controls - around five times as many plants as animals! Most of the plant species are included in Appendix II.Appendix I: lists plants threatened with extinction which are, or may be affected by trade. Trade in wild-taken plants for commercial purposes is prohibited. More than 300 plant species are included in this Appendix.Appendix II: lists plants which, although not necessarily threatened at the moment, may become so if trade were not regulated. This Appendix also includes species similar in appearance in order to secure better control. Trade in both wild-taken and artificially propagated plants is allowed, but is regulated. Over 25,000 plant species are included in this Appendix!Appendix III: lists plants subject to regulation within the territory of a CITES Party and for which the co-operation of other Parties is needed to prevent or restrict their exploitation. Over 30 plant species are included in this Appendix.For plants in all three Appendices, trade in artificially propagated specimens is allowed. All CITES trade is regulated by a system of permits.[Note to speaker: The slide shows a Paphiopedilum species (left), Welwitschia mirabilis (centre), and Cedrela odorata (right). See slide 50 for an alternative format for this slide.]>300 druhů>25,000 druhů>30 druhů
24 Přílohy Appendix I >300 Appendix II >25,000 Appendix III >30 CITES and PlantsAdditional Slides 50PřílohySlide 50: The AppendicesAt the core of the Convention are three lists of species, or Appendices. There are over 25,000 plant species subject to CITES controls - around five times as many plants as animals! Most of the plant species are included in Appendix II.Appendix I: lists plants threatened with extinction which are, or may be affected by trade. Trade in wild-taken plants for commercial purposes is prohibited. More than 300 plant species are included in this Appendix.Appendix II: lists plants which, although not necessarily threatened at the moment, may become so if trade were not regulated. This Appendix also includes species similar in appearance in order to secure better control. Trade in both wild-taken and artificially propagated plants is allowed, but is regulated. Over 25,000 plant species are included in this Appendix!Appendix III: lists plants subject to regulation within the territory of a CITES Party and for which the co-operation of other Parties is needed to prevent or restrict their exploitation. Over 30 plant species are included in this Appendix.For plants in all three Appendices, trade in artificially propagated specimens is allowed. All CITES trade is covered by a system of permits.[Note to speaker: This is an alternative format for slide 9.]Appendix I >300Appendix II >25,000Appendix III >30
25 300 druhů rostlin, které jsou bezprostředně ohrožené vyhubením CITES I300 druhů rostlin, které jsou bezprostředně ohrožené vyhubenímMezinárodní obchod s těmito druhy je zakázánCITES IIdruhů rostlinkteré by mohly být ohroženy, pokud by mezinárodníobchod s nimi nebyl regulovándruhy snadno zaměnitelné za exempláře CITES I.CITES III8 druhů rostlindruhy, které jsou ohroženy mezinárodním obchodem pouze v určitých zemích a jsou chráněny na návrh těchto zemí.
26 Aims and Implementation 10 CITES and PlantsAims and Implementation 10Příloha IObchod s rostlinami z přírody pro komerční účely je zakázánObchod s uměle vypěstovanými rostlinami je povolen, podmíněný permityPaphiopedilum sp.Slide 10: Appendix IWhat type of species are included in Appendix I?Appendix I includes plants threatened with extinction and affected by international trade.The commercial trade in specimens of Appendix I plants taken from the wild is effectively prohibited. Trade in artificially propagated specimens is allowed, but is subject to the granting of permits.As well as the plants themselves, the trade in any part of the plant, or any product made from them, is also subject to CITES controls. This includes scientific material such as herbarium specimens.Examples of plants included in Appendix I:certain orchids, e.g. the genus Paphiopedilum, the Asian slipper orchids, such as the one shown on this slide.
27 Aims and Implementation 11 CITES and PlantsAims and Implementation 11Příloha IIObchod s druhy z přírody i s uměle vypěstovanými pro komerční i & nekomerční účely je povolen, podmíněn permityCypripedium sp.Slide 11: Appendix IIWhat type of species are included in Appendix II?Appendix II is a list of plants which, though they may not be threatened with extinction, may become so if the trade is not regulated and monitored.Commercial and non-commercial trade in both wild collected and artificially propagated plants is allowed, but is subject to permits. The control mechanisms aim at allowing trade in quantities that will not affect populations in the wild. For some species included in Appendix II, certain specified parts and derivatives are also subject to controls, or specifically excluded.Examples of plants included in Appendix II:all orchids and cacti not included in Appendix I are included in Appendix II, such as the Cypripedium species (Orchidaceae) shown on this slide.
28 Dřevo „ramin“ Gonystylus sp. CITES and PlantsAims and Implementation 12Příloha IIIObchod s druhy z přírody i s uměle vypěstovanými pro komerční i & nekomerční účely je povolen, podmíněn permityCedrela odorata pro Peru a KolumbiiGonystylus sp. Pro IndonésiiSlide 12: Appendix IIIWhat type of species are included in Appendix III?Appendix III includes plants subject to regulation within the territory of a CITES Party and for which the co-operation of other Parties is needed to prevent or restrict their exploitation.Trade in both wild-collected and artificially propagated plants included in Appendix III is allowed, but requires CITES documents.Example of an Appendix III species:Spanish cedar, Cedrela odorata, is included in Appendix III by Peru and Colombia. CITES controls are limited to logs, sawn wood and veneer sheets.Ramin, Gonostylus spp. is included in Appendix III by Indonesia. CITES, in effect, controls the tree and parts and derivatives including manufactured material and scientific specimens. The slide shows various products made from ramin wood.[Note to speaker: A Party can nominate a species at any time for listing on CITES Appendix III - it does not have to be approved by a meeting of the CITES Conference of the Parties. You may wish to check the CITES website at before your presentation to check for any new listings.]CoP13 Amendments: Indonesia put forward to CoP13 a proposal to transfer Ramin from Appendix III to Appendix II. Check the CITES website to confirm if this proposal was adopted and if it resulted in a change to the parts and derivatives controlled by the Convention.Dřevo „ramin“ Gonystylus sp.
29 Exportní permit nejdůležitější doklad CITES and PlantsAims and Implementation 13Exportní permit nejdůležitější dokladVydává vládní orgán pro management (MŽP)Vědecký orgán musí potvrdit, že export nebude ohrožovat přežití druhu v přírodě:„The Non-Detriment Statement“(potvrzení o nezpůsobení újmy )Slide 13: Export PermitsIn order to trade in plants covered by CITES, certain documents, or permits, are required. These permits are effectively findings from a Party confirming that the removal of the plant from that country will not affect wild populations and that the plant, or plant part, has been legally acquired. Permits are issued by the Management Authority of the Party.The most important document is the export permit.To take an Appendix I or Appendix II specimen out of the country of origin an export permit is required. This is a document confirming that, in the opinion of that Party, the removal of the plant from that country will not pose a threat to the survival of the species in the wild.The Management Authority issuing the permit must first have consulted with its Scientific Authority and been advised by them that the export will not affect wild populations detrimentally. This is termed a ‘non-detriment statement’.The requirement for an export permit applies to both wild-taken and artificially propagated specimens.
31 Aims and Implementation 14 CITES and PlantsAims and Implementation 14Importní permityCITES vyžaduje pro rostliny z přílohy INěkteré státy, např. členské země EU, vyžadují importní permity pro všechny rostliny Příloh I. A II.Slide 14: Import PermitsImport permits are required for plants and material of wild origin, when the species is included in Appendix I. Import permits are not normally required for Appendix II material.Before an import permit may be granted by the Management Authority of the country into which a wild Appendix I plant is being brought, the Scientific Authority of the importing country must advise that the import would not be detrimental to the survival of the species in the wild.However, some Parties take measures that are stricter than the basic requirements of the Convention. For example, the countries of the European Union require import permits for all material of species included in Appendices I and II. This applies to both wild-taken and artificially propagated material.[Note to speaker: You can check the European Union Regulations and stricter measures by logging onto the website:
32 Aims and Implementation 15 CITES and PlantsAims and Implementation 15Certifikát o původuSlide 15: Certificates of OriginIn the case of Appendix III species:an export permit is required if the specimen is being exported from the country that listed the species;if the specimen is being exported from a country other than the one that listed the species in the Appendices, a certificate from the country of origin is needed.These documents effectively state that the material has been legally acquired in the country of export.Appendix III exports do not require a ‘non-detriment statement’.Details of all CITES transactions are documented by the Parties and compiled in annual reports that are submitted to the Secretariat.Je vyžadován u CITES III rostlinvyvážených z jiných zemí než uvádí Příloha III
34 Aims and Implementation 16 CITES and PlantsAims and Implementation 16SouhrnMezinárodní úmluva (International convention)2008: 171 státůCOPs and CommitteesPřílohy (Appendices) = seznamy druhů (species lists)Permit systemSlide 16: SummaryTo summarise the first section of this presentation, we’ve seen that:CITES is an international conservation tool established to ensure that international trade does not detrimentally affect the survival of wild populations;decisions with regard to CITES are taken by the Parties, in consultation with scientists and other interested groups;at the core of the Convention are three lists of species subject to its controls; and,international trade in species included in the Appendices is regulated by a system of permits.
35 Kategorie v EU Evropská Unie aplikuje přísnější ochranu pro CITES druhy, ale ipro další ohrožené druhy vyskytující se na území EU čidruhy, které by mohly ohrozit ekologickou stabilitu a u kterých chcezabránit jejich dovozu na své území. Členské země EU proto mají vlastní seznamy CITES druhů(viz. nařízení Komise (ES) č. 1332/2005),kde jsou druhy rozděleny do kategori A,B,C a DA - druhy CITES I + některé druhy CITES II B - druhy CITES II + některé CITES III + druhy ohrožující ekologickou stabilitu C - druhy CITES III D - neCITES druhy, u nichž EU monitoruje dovoz na své územíOd je ČR členskou zemí EU, proto jsou nyní v ČR závazné seznamykategorií A-D, resp. nařízení Komise (ES) č. 1332/2005
36 1. Stav před vstupem ČR do EU (28. 5. 1992 - 30. 4. 2004) zákon č. 114/1992 Sb.(o ochraně přírody a krajiny) od 1. 4. 1997 do 30. 4. 2004zákon č. 16/1997 Sb.(o podmínkách dovozu a vývozu ohrožených druhůvolně žijících živočichů aplaně rostoucích rostlin)2. Předpisy Evropských společenstvíOd 1. 5. 2004 se postupuje podlepředpisů ES Seznam předpisů k CITES je v příloze č. 2(Základním předpisem jenařízení Rady (ES) č. 338/97 ze dneo ochraně druhů volně žijících živočichůa planě rostoucích rostlina regulování obchodu s nimi („nařízení č. 338/97)a zákona č. 100/2004 Sb. (vydán především kvůli uplatňování(implementaci) nařízení č. 338/97 v ČR)- je národním implementačním předpisem k nařízení č. 338/97
37 Rostliny chráněné CITES Plant Groups Covered by CITES 17Rostliny chráněné CITES
38 Více druhů rostlin než živočichů ! CITES and PlantsPlant Groups Covered by CITES 18Více druhů rostlin než živočichů !Příloha II:Echinops sp.Dionaea muscipulaPleione sp.Slide 18: More Plants than Animals!As we saw earlier, there are over 25,000 plant species subject to CITES controls - 5 times as many plants as animals! The reason for this is that several very large, horticulturally important plant groups are listed in CITES Appendix II.The species included in the CITES Appendices are subject to changes after each meeting of the Conference of the Parties. An easy way to keep up to date with CITES changes is to check the Appendices on the CITES website at[Note to speaker: This slide shows a Pleione species (top left, Orchidaeae, Appendix II), an Echinopsis species (top centre, Cactaceae, Appendix II), Dionaea muscipula (top right, Appendix II), a Galanthus species (bottom left, Appendix II) and wild collected Cyclamen tubers (bottom centre, Appendix II).]Galanthus sp.Cyclamen tubers
39 Počet druhů rostlin na seznamech Počet druhů zvířat na seznamech CITES: ve všech přílohách: cca v příloze I: cca 500Počet druhů rostlin na seznamechCITES: ve všech přílohách: cca v příloze I: cca 300
40 Rostliny, jejich části a výrobky z nich CITES and PlantsPlant Groups Covered by CITES 19Rostliny, jejich části a výrobky z nichDalbergia nigra, CITES ISušené hlízy orchidejí – medicínaCITES IISlide 19: Plants, Parts and DerivativesCITES controls apply to plants, ‘alive or dead’ and to ‘any readily recognisable parts and derivatives’.This means that it’s not just the plants themselves that are subject to controls, but parts of the plants including seeds, cuttings and leaves. Products made from plants may also be subject to CITES controls. If the name of a CITES-listed species is written on packaging then the product is considered to contain it and is therefore subject to CITES controls.There may be annotations next to the species listing in the Appendices specifically including, or excluding, certain parts and derivatives. For example, certain timber listings are annotated so that only logs, sawn timber and veneer sheets are subject to controls. Similarly, orchids included in Appendix I are annotated to exclude seedlings and tissue cultures transported in sterile containers from control.Herbarium specimens and material preserved in spirit are also subject to the provisions of CITES. However, there is a special CITES registration system which allows exchange by scientific institutions of scientific material using a simple label system.We will now take a look at some examples of the plant species included in the CITES Appendices.[Note to speaker: Slide 57 in the additional slide section contains more information on the registration system for scientific institutions. If you are speaking to a scientific audience you may wish to include Slide 57 in your presentation. This slide shows Dalbergia nigra timber (top left, Appendix I), dried chopped pieces of medicinal orchids (top centre, Appendix II), a Pachypodium species (top right, Appendix II), dried herbarium specimens (bottom left), flasked Orchidaceae seedlings (bottom centre) and a Paphiopedilum species (bottom right, Orchidaceae, Appendix I).]Pachypodium sp. CITES IIherbářové položkysemenáče orchidejíPaphiopedilum sp. CITES I
41 3.8.2006 - CEI restrained shipment of Traditional Chinese Medicine products containing 192 boxes of JING YA WAN.One ingredient is Dendrobium sp.(Orchidaceae, CITES II/B). This shipment was sent without relevant documents from China for Czech company. Boxes were labeled only by numbers; product name andcontent were named only in shipping documents. This company will be fined.
42 Paphiopedilum sp. CITES I. Asijské střevičníky CITES and PlantsPlant Groups Covered by CITES 20Paphiopedilum sp. CITES I. Asijské střevičníkySlide 20: Orchid Species - PaphiopedilumAll orchids are included in the CITES Appendices, accounting for the majority of the total number of species, plants and animals regulated by the Convention.All orchids are included in at least Appendix II of CITES, so they may be traded from the wild or artificially propagated sources, subject to the granting of permits. However, some species and genera are included in Appendix I. An Appendix I listing effectively prohibits the trade in wild-taken specimens, but allows trade in artificially propagated specimens, subject to permit.The orchids shown in this slide are Asian slipper orchids from the genus Paphiopedilum. The genus Paphiopedilum is included in Appendix I.In common with many orchid species, Asian slipper orchids are highly desirable and collectable. While many are in trade from artificially propagated sources, a sizeable trade in illegally collected wild-taken plants exists. Slipper orchids are vulnerable to over-collection from the wild as many grow in small colonies of limited extent which can easily be seriously affected by the removal of even a small number of individuals.[Note to speaker: The 12th Meeting of the Conference of the Parties excluded Phalaenopsis hybrids packed under proscribed conditions from CITES control. Check the CITES website at to keep up to date with this and other changes to the controls.]
43 Orchideje – hybridy nepodléhají regulaci obchodování CITES and PlantsPlant Groups Covered by CITES 21Orchideje – hybridy nepodléhají regulaci obchodováníSlide 21: Orchid HybridsThe vast majority of the orchid species in trade are included in Appendix II, which means they can be traded from both wild and artificially propagated sources, subject to the issuance of export permits.Hybrids of orchids are far more common in cultivation and trade than the species themselves. As most hybrids are only found in cultivation, i.e. they do not occur naturally in the wild, the conservation implications of trade in such plants is minimal.Why then are they subject to CITES controls?The answer is that in order to ensure effective controls for species threatened by the trade in wild-taken plants, plants that look very much like them must also be subject to controls.However, as part of the Review of the Appendices the CITES Plants Committee recommended that a group of the widely traded artificially propagated orchids be removed from control. It was felt that that this would not cause any impact on wild populations and, due to improving CITES enforcement for plants, no loophole for illegal trade. The 12th meeting of the Conference of the Parties approved the deletion of Phalaenopsis hybrids from control, subject to certain conditions.[Note to speaker: The exemption for Phalaenopsis hybrids applies only to consignments of greater than 100 plants packed separately and accompanied by a document such as an invoice which states their number and type. Details of the full list of exemptions can be found by checking the latest CITES Appendices at The exemptions may be subject to change at future CoPs so check the website before you lecture!]CoP13 Amendments: CoP13 considered a range of proposals to exclude additional orchid hybrids from CITES contol. Check the CITES website to determine if any of these proposals were adopted.
44 Kaktusy z přírody x uměle vypěstované CITES and PlantsPlant Groups Covered by CITES 22Kaktusy z přírody x uměle vypěstovanéSlide 22: CactiAnother large, horticulturally important group listed in the CITES Appendices is the cacti. This group is widely distributed in the Americas, frequently occurring in the desert areas of this region. The group is widely collected and studied by enthusiasts and scientists. Many cultivated varieties are familiar as houseplants in North America and Europe.The entire Cactaceae family is included in the CITES Appendices. Around 90 species are included in Appendix I, therefore prohibiting trade in these species from the wild. However, most species are included in Appendix II. Trade in these Appendix II listed species is allowed from both artificially propagated and wild-collected sources, subject to the issuance of a permit.Many species are found in very restricted habitats and are prized by collectors; over-collection poses a significant threat to such species, as well as being illegal in many countries.[Note to speaker: The Swiss CITES authorities have produced an excellent illustrated guidebook and CD ROM ‘The Cacti of CITES Appendix I’ by Jonas M. Lüthy which now forms part of the CITES Identification Manual (details available from the CITES Secretariat). This slide shows an Opuntia species (left, Appendix II), artificially propagated Opuntia and Ferocactus species (centre, Appendix II), and an Echinocereus species (right, Appendix II).]Opuntia sp.Opuntis sp Ferocactus sp.Echinocereus sp.
45 – Czech citizen travelling from Isla Margharita (Venezuela) was caught on Prague airport with illegal imported cacti (32 spec. Melocactus,3 spec. Pilosocereus) all CITES II/B.This man claimed that he had received these cacti as a gift from the native friend. He travelled from Porlamar to Prague (by flight OK 6037). Specimen were hidden in his luggage, CEI has restrained them. This man will be fined.
46 Plant Groups Covered by CITES 23 CITES and PlantsPlant Groups Covered by CITES 23Semena kaktusůLophophora sp.Permity vyžadovány:u všech CITES Iu všech kaktusů z MexikaSlide 23: Cacti SeedsAs all parts and derivatives of species included in Appendix I are subject to CITES controls, the import and export of seed from such plants requires the appropriate CITES permits.Generally, the seeds of Appendix II species are excluded from CITES controls. However, at the 10th meeting of the Conference of the Parties to CITES in 1997, the Parties adopted a proposal put forward by Mexico. This means that seeds of Mexican Cactaceae, originating from that country, are subject to the provisions of CITES and requires permits.This slide shows an individual of the Appendix II cactus genus, Lophophora, with seed. If the seed had originated from Mexico, then CITES permits would be required for legal export.
47 Sarracenia leucophylla CITES and PlantsPlant Groups Covered by CITES 24Masožravé rostlinySarracenia sp.Sarracenia sp.Sarracenia leucophyllaCITES IISlide 24: Carnivorous PlantsAnother large group, many of which are included in the CITES Appendices are the carnivorous plants. The genera controlled are Nepenthes, Sarracenia and Dionaea. Carnivorous plants are often found growing on poor, nitrogen deficient, soils; they obtain the nitrogen they require from the decomposing bodies of their prey.The slide shows Sarracenia leucophylla, the white-topped pitcher-plant, an Appendix II species found in the south-eastern USA. Three Sarracenia taxa are included in Appendix I, while the remaining species are included in Appendix II.In the south-eastern United States, habitat destruction poses a significant threat to these plants. All species are easily artificially propagated from seed or rhizomes. The pitchers of certain species are cut and harvested for the floristry trade and there is concern about the sustainability of harvesting from the wild for this trade.Sarracenia sp.
48 Masožravé rostliny - Dionaea muscipula CITES II CITES and PlantsPlant Groups Covered by CITES 25Masožravé rostliny - Dionaea muscipula CITES IISnadno se množí uměle, ale stále je sbírána v přírodě USA – hrozí zánik stanovišťSlide 25: Carnivorous Plants - Dionaea muscipulaPerhaps the most familiar carnivorous plant is Dionaea muscipula, the Venus fly-trap. Found in the wild only in the USA, this species is included in Appendix II of the Convention.It is easily artificially propagated, but is still collected from the wild. Habitat destruction also poses a threat to this plant.
49 Galanthus sp. CITES II. Turecko – 19 druhů sněženek CITES and PlantsPlant Groups Covered by CITES 26Galanthus sp. CITES II.Turecko – 19 druhů sněženekSběr hlíz v přírodě (ačkoliv se snadno množí uměle)Slide 26: GalanthusPlants of the genus Galanthus, commonly known as snowdrops, are familiar in the gardens of Europe. The genus is included in Appendix II.There are about 19 species of snowdrop, with a distribution centred in Turkey.These plants are most commonly traded as bulbs. Trade in wild-taken specimens occurs, although bulbs are also artificially propagated on a large scale.
50 Cyclamen sp.CITES II. Evropa, Afrika, Asie: 21 druhů CITES and PlantsPlant Groups Covered by CITES 27Cyclamen sp.CITES II.Evropa, Afrika, Asie: 21 druhůSlide 27: CyclamenThe genus Cyclamen is a group of very distinct species native to parts of Europe, western Asia and North Africa. All Cyclamen species are included in Appendix II of the Convention.The 21 species are of great horticultural interest, with many different colour forms and leaf markings. Four species are widely grown in gardens, and most Cyclamen are easily cultivated. One species, Cyclamen persicum, is commonly available in the florists and garden centres of Europe. This species is so widely cultivated and traded that artificially propagated plants are now exempt from the provisions of the Convention. Dormant tubers and all other species in this genus are still subject to controls.In Turkey, local projects to propagate Galanthus and Cyclamen on a commercial scale provide employment and income for local people. Turkey also has in place a comprehensive control system to monitor and regulate the collection and trade in wild ‘bulbs’ (including Galanthus and Cyclamen) to ensure that it is sustainable. This trade in wild-collected plants provides an important income for local villagers.Cyclamen persicumCyclamen persicum – běžný druh květinářstvíkontrole podléhají jen hlízy
51 Aloe sp. CITES II 20 druhů z Madagaskaru CITES I CITES and PlantsPlant Groups Covered by CITES 28Aloe sp. CITES II 20 druhů z Madagaskaru CITES ISukulenty, 400 druhů, Afrika, Madagaskar, Arabský poloostrov, Kanárské o.Slide 28: AloeThe genus Aloe includes over 400 species of succulent plants with leaves arranged in spirals. Most aloes occur in Africa and Madagascar, with some species being found in the Arabian Peninsula and the Canary Islands.This slide includes Aloe ferox, a South African species included in Appendix II. It is of interest to succulent growers, but also to the pharmaceutical industry. Commercial and specialist collectors pose a threat to the wild populations of Aloe species and therefore all aloes are included in the CITES Appendices. Over 20 species, including all dwarf aloes from Madagascar, are included in Appendix I, while the remaining are included in Appendix II.One exception! Aloe vera, commonly found in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products, is specifically excluded from the CITES Appendices. This species has been cultivated for centuries and there is no evidence of wild populations still in existence. It is cultivated in several countries and the trade in plants, leaves, and derivatives is entirely from artificially propagated sources.[Note to speaker: A full review of the succulent plants covered by CITES is included in the manual ‘CITES and Succulents’ which has been produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, UK.]Aloe feroxAloe vera – nejsou známy přírodní lokalitypo staletí pěstovaná, nepodléhá kontrole
52 Aloe gariepensis CITES II Additional Slides 53AloeAloe castanea CITES IISlide 53: Detecting Detrimental Trade? - The Burden on Exporting CountriesThe aim of CITES is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. Appendix I includes those species ’threatened with extinction which are or may be affected by trade’. Trade in wild specimens of Appendix I taxa for commercial purposes is in effect banned under CITES. Appendix II includes ’all species which although not necessarily now threatened with extinction may become so unless trade in specimens of such species is subject to regulation in order to avoid utilisation incompatible with their survival’. Trade is allowed in wild Appendix II species subject to permits being issued.Before granting an export permit for Appendix II plants a CITES Management Authority must fulfil Article IV of the Convention. This states that an export permit shall only be granted when, inter alia,’A Scientific Authority of the state of export has advised that such export will not be detrimental to the survival of that species’This is, in effect, a statement of sustainability, which in CITES is termed a non-detriment finding.[Note to speaker: The slide shows Aloe gariepensis (Appendix II).]Aloe gariepensis CITES II
53 Succulentní pryšce Euphorbia sp. CITES II. 10 druhů CITES I CITES and PlantsPlant Groups Covered by CITES 29Euphorbia: 2000 druhů, 700 druhů sukulentních, Afrika (Asie, Amerika, J. Evropa)Euphorbia pachypodioidesMadagaskarSlide 29: Succulent EuphorbiaThe genus Euphorbia includes about 2,000 species of very diverse habit, from annual plants to large trees, occurring mainly in Africa, but also extending into Asia, the Americas and southern Europe. CITES listing is confined to the the succulent euphorbias, over 700 species in total. The euphorbias subject to CITES controls are listed in ‘The CITES Checklist of Succulent Euphorbia Taxa‘.All succulent euphorbias are included in Appendix II of CITES, with 10 species given the extra protection of an Appendix I listing. This slide includes Euphorbia pachypodioides (left), a native of Madagascar and, in common with other such euphorbias, highly collectable. It is propagated by nurseries outside its natural range, but is also collected from the wild.Succulent euphorbias usually have a fleshy stem with or without spines. Leaves may be present in some species, but they drop in the rest season. Plants are usually traded without leaves.Some species look rather like cacti. Unlike cacti, however, all euphorbias contain a milky latex that can be seen oozing from the plant if a minor wound is made with a pin. Remember that the latex may be very toxic and may cause irritation to your skin if touched.Obchodovány v klidové fázi bez listů
54 Cykasy CITES II některé druhy CITES I CITES and PlantsPlant Groups Covered by CITES 30Cykasy CITES II některé druhy CITES ISběr semen a velkých rostlin ohrožuje přírodní populaceCycas panzhiuaensisČínaSlide 30: CycadsCycads are amongst the most primitive of plants. They belong to a number of different genera found in Africa, Asia, Australia and the Americas. All cycads are included in Appendix II of the Convention, but several species and three genera are included in Appendix I.Cycads are very attractive to horticulturists and landscape gardeners in mild climates. They are also popular in Europe as large decorative container plants. Cycads are widely cultivated as ornamentals and many are sought after by specialist collectors. Removal of whole plants and the collection of seed from the wild is having a serious impact on populations of these plants. The poaching of large plants from the wild remains a serious problem wherever cycads occur.Steps are being taken to increase the artificial propagation of cycads. In Mexico, for example, community based projects involve entire villages in the conservation and propagation of cycads.[Note to speaker:A useful reference on the conservation and sustainable use of Cycads is ‘Cycads, Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan’ edited by John Donaldson (2003) of the IUCN/SSC Cycad Specialist Group and published by IUCN - The World Conservation Union. The CITES Identification Manual also contains a very useful section on how to identify Cycad genera by their leaves. This slide shows the Mexican cycad, Dioon edule (left) and collection of Cycas panzhihuaensis in China (right).]Dioon eduleMexiko
55 Palmy z Madagaskaru CITES II CITES and PlantsPlant Groups Covered by CITES 31Palmy z Madagaskaru CITES IIChysalidocarpus decipiens (Dypsis decipiens) a Neodypsis decaryi (Dypsis decaryi)nyní rozšířené v kultuřeSlide 31: PalmsOnly a small number of Palms are covered by CITES. All the CITES species listed to date are native to Madagascar which has an extremely rich Palm flora. To date some nine species of Palms have been listed on CITES, all on Appendix II. All have been listed because of the demand for their seeds and plants in international trade. Of the earlier listed species Chysalidocarpus decipiens (Dypsis decipiens) and Neodypsis decaryi (Dypsis decaryi) are now widely available in cultivation. The additional seven species were added at the twelfth meeting of the Conference of the Parties in 2002 at the request of Madagascar.[Note to speaker: This slide shows Beccariophoenix madagascariensis (left), Satranala decussilvae (centre) and Marojejya darianii (right), three of the palm species from Madagascar listed on Appendix II at COP12.]Beccaryophoenix madagascaryensisCITES IISatranala decussilvaeMarojejya darianii
56 Stromové kapradiny Dicksonia sp., Cyathea sp., Cibotium sp. CITES and PlantsPlant Groups Covered by CITES 32Stromové kapradinyDicksonia sp., Cyathea sp., Cibotium sp.Slide 32: Tree FernsTree ferns are distributed in the Americas, South East Asia, Australia, New Zealand and Africa. Species from three genera are controlled by CITES, Dicksonia, Cyathea and Cibotium. All species of Cyathea are included in Appendix II together with those Dicksonia species from ‘the Americas only’. Four species of Dicksonia are known to occur in ‘the Americas’. These are Dicksonia berteriana, D. externa, D. sellowiana and D. stuebelii. Cibotium barometz, an Asian tree fern traded for medicinal purposes from China, is also controlled.Cyathea and Dicksonia are traded as growing plants, but more usually as sawn-off trunks or trunk sections. Trunks are also traded as blocks and pots, which are often used in the horticulture trade to grow other plants, especially orchids. Such products are also subject to CITES controls. Cibotium is traded as dried roots and also as an ingredient in Chinese medicine.Cibotium in trade, to date, is only known to come from the wild, with no known large scale propagation for the medicinal trade.
57 Stromové kapradiny - CITES II Amerika, JV Asie, Australie, N. Zéland, AfrikaCyatheaDicksonia – pouze z Ameriky: D. berterianaD. externaD. sellowianaD. stuebelliiživé rostlinyčastěji odsekané části –bloky, podložka pro epifytyCibotium barometz – pouze v příroděsušené kořeny, čínská medicína
58 Dřevo - CITES I Dalbergia nigra brazilské růžové dřevo CITES and PlantsPlant Groups Covered by CITES 33Dřevo - CITES IDalbergia nigrabrazilské růžové dřevoSlide 33: Timber - Appendix IA number of tree species are included in the Appendices of CITES.These species may be traded for their timber, or other uses such as their medicinal properties.The guitar in the slide is made from pre-Convention Dalbergia nigra (Brazilian Rosewood). This species is also traded as antique furniture, often with ivory inlays. Dalbergia nigra is included on Appendix I of the Convention. Inclusion in Appendix I means that the species, and all parts and derivatives made from it, may be commercially traded only when the material comes from artificially propagated sources, or where the material was acquired before the species was included in the Appendices. Such material is termed ‘pre-Convention’.pre-Convention = vyrobeno před zařazením druhu do seznamu CITES
59 Dřevo - Appendix II and III CITES and PlantsPlant Groups Covered by CITES 34Dřevo - Appendix II and IIISwieteniaSlide 34: Timber - Appendix II and IIIA number of tree species that are used for timber, are included on CITES Appendices II and III.The genus Swietenia (South American Mahogany) is listed on Appendix II. The major species in trade is Swietenia macrophylla. The natural range of this tree extends from the Bolivian Amazon up the Atlantic and Gulf coasts to Mexico. Concern over the long term sustainability of the exploitation of this high value timber has led to strict controls on its harvest being put in place in many of its range States and to its CITES listing. Brazil was the major exporter, however a moratorium on exports was put in place by the Brazilian government in October 2001 to allow them to strengthen national controls on illegal logging. Principal exporting countries in the recent past have been Brazil, Bolivia and Peru. The UK was once an important importer, but the UK trade now regard it as a niche species and seek lower priced woods to replace it.Afrormosia (Pericopsis elata) is a valuable west African timber listed on Appendix II of CITES. The major exporting countries are Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Congo. The wood is exported, for the greater part, as sawn timber and the major importers are Italy, Japan, Belgium and Taiwan.Ramin (Gonystylus spp.) is a light tropical hardwood concentrated in the swamp forests of Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia and Malaysia. The Indonesian government listed ramin in Appendix III of CITES in April This was due to their concern about the over-exploitation of ramin due to the illegal logging of the tree from prime orang-utan habitats and protected areas. The European Union is a major importer of ramin, as is the USA. Within the EU, Italy is the largest importer of ramin. Ramin is popular for picture frame mouldings, of which Italy is the major producer and exporter within Europe. Ramin products include dowels, decorative mouldings, slatted wooden blinds, picture frames, slatted wooden doors, window shutters, and furniture components.[Note to speaker: Indonesia put forward to CoP13 a proposal to transfer Ramin from Appendix III to Appendix II. Check the CITES website to confirm if this proposal was adopted and if it resulted in a change to the parts and derivatives controlled by the Convention. For updates on the CITES timber listings, quota levels and other important information on implementation check the CITES website at .]PericopsisGonystylusHlavní obchodní cesty
60 Vzácné dřevo Swietenia – jihoamerický mahagon CITES II S. macrophylla – export: Brazílie, Bolívie, Peru- import V. Británie – minulostPericopsis elata – afrormosia- Z Afrika – export řeziva: Kameroon, Kongo- import: Itálie, Japonsko, Belgie, TaiwanGonystylus sp. – ramin –lehké a tvrdé tropické dřevo z bažinnéhopralesa, ilegální těžba v chráněných územích- export: Indonézie, Malaysie, Brunei Darussalam-import: USA, EU (Itálie): špalíky, rámečky,sošky, žaluzie, okna, dveře
61 Léčivé rostliny – ženšen sušený kořen – celý, drcený, mletý CITES and PlantsPlant Groups Covered by CITES 35Léčivé rostliny – ženšen sušený kořen – celý, drcený, mletýPanax quinquefoliusSlide 35: Medicinal Plants - Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng)A number of plants with specific uses in the medicinal plant trade are included in the CITES Appendices. Some species listings specifically exclude finished medicines from CITES, while others refer to certain parts and derivatives.Panax quinquefolius is native to the USA and Canada. It is threatened by over-collection, but is also cultivated. American ginseng is traded as whole, sliced and powdered roots, and is widely used in homeopathic medicines, Asian medicines, and other products.The listing for this species specifies that only the unprocessed roots themselves, shown in this slide, are subject to CITES controls. Processed products are specifically excluded, for example teas, confectionery and pills, reflecting the intention by the Parties not to control finished medicines and other products under this listing.In addition to American ginseng, Panax ginseng, also known as Korean, Oriental or Chinese ginseng, is widely traded and is included in Appendix II. However, the listing for this species only covers those populations from the Russian Federation, because these are probably the only wild populations left. The largest trade is in propagated Panax ginseng material from Korea, which is not subject to CITES control.[Note to speaker: The report by the German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation ‘Medicinal Plants Significant Trade Study CITES Project S Plants Committee Document PC (rev.). U. Schippmann (2001)’ is an excellent source of information on the CITES medicinal plant trade.]Panax quinquefolius – USA, Canada. Pěstovaný, ale i sběr v přírodě.Panax ginseng – korejský, orientální, čínský. Největší export: KoreaCITES II – pouze populace v Rusku – pouze tam poslední lokality
62 Zpráva o dovozu 564 exemplářů ženšenu ČIŽP ve spolupráci s celní správou zajistila v březnu 2004 zásilku z Ruska, která obsahovala 564 kořenů ženšenu (Panax ginseng). Ruská populace tohoto druhu je chráněna dle Mezinárodní úmluvy CITES a k jeho dovozu do České republiky jsou třeba povolení dle zákona č. 16/1997 Sb. Tato povolení nebyla při dovozu předložena. Kořeny byly vydávány za jiný druh. Provedením mikroskopické a chromatografické analýzy bylo prokázáno, že se jedná skutečně o ženšen. Na základě zjištěných skutečností zahájila ČIŽP s dovozcem správní řízení o odebrání exemplářů a řízení o přestupku.
63 Tillandsia – Air Plants Additional Slides 61Slide 61: Tillandsia – Air PlantsTillandsia is a large genus in the Bromeliad or Pineapple family (Bromeliaceae). There are over 300 species in this genus and they occur naturally in tropical America. They are called Air Plants due to their poorly developed root stocks and apparent ability to draw their nutrients from the air. They are epiphytes growing on other plants and any substrate they can find. Many species are common and are widely distributed. Within their range of distribution certain species grow abundantly on telephone wires. Seven species are listed on CITES due to their restricted distribution and demand in trade. In trade they are novelty ornamentals – for example bought as house plants in Northern Europe. Guatemala is a major producer and exporter, for example supplying the European market with weekly cargo flights of cultivated material.The CITES listed species are Tillandsia harrisii, T. kammii, T. kautskyi, T. mauryana, T. sprengeliana, T. sucrei and T. xerographica. Tillandsia harrisii, and Tillandsia xerographica are the only CITES listed taxa which are actually common in trade. Until recently the trade was thought to be well regulated and sustainable. However questions have been raised with regard to whether some cultivation methods used for Tillandsia xerographica are consistent with the CITES definition of artificial propagation and therefore sustainable.The CITES identification manual includes full details of the Tillandsia species found in trade. You can check the details of any discussions on the trade in Tillandsia by consulting the reports of Plants Committee meetings which will be posted on the CITES website.[Note to speaker: This slide shows non-CITES listed Air Plants (left), an Air Plant nursery in the Netherlands (centre), and Tillandsia xerographica (right, Appendix II).]Tillandsia xerographicaCITES II300 druhů AmerikaCITES II:, T. kammii, T. kautskii, T. mauryana, T. sprengeliana, T. sucrei,T. harrisii, T. xerografica
64 Gastrodia (Orchidaceae) CITES and PlantsConclusion 46CITES IISarracenia sp.Cattleya hybridEchinocereus sp.Slide 46: ConclusionCITES was established over 30 years ago to protect populations of certain species of plants and animals from over-exploitation through international trade. Now over 160 Parties to CITES recognise the scientific, cultural and economic importance of fauna and flora in different countries and that international co-operation is essential to maintain it.The Parties also acknowledge that commercial trade may be beneficial to the conservation of species and ecosystems and to the development of local communities, when carried out at levels that are not detrimental to the survival of the species in question.However, the overriding aim of CITES is to ensure that wild fauna and flora, in their many and varied forms, are protected. They are an irreplaceable part of the natural systems of the Earth which must be used in a sustainable manner and protected from over-exploitation for present generations, and for those to come.[Note to speaker: This slide shows a Cattleya hybrid (top left, Orchidaceae, Appendix II), a Sarracenia species (top centre, Sarraceniaceae, Appendix II), a flower of an Echinocereus species (top right, Cactaceae, Appendix II), flasked Orchidaceae seedlings (bottom left, exempt) and a range of Chinese medicinals (including Gastrodia, Orchidaceae, Appendix II) on sale at a market in China (bottom centre).]Orchidaceae semenáčeGastrodia (Orchidaceae)výjimkaČínská medicína
65 Výjimky supermarketové rostliny CITES and PlantsPlant Groups Covered by CITES 36Výjimky supermarketové rostlinySlide 36: Exemptions - Supermarket PlantsMany plants are artificially propagated on a large scale.One of the benefits of CITES has been to encourage the artificial propagation of many plants. Artificial propagation takes the pressure off wild populations, removing the need for plants to be collected from the wild and providing the public with a supply of cheap, high quality, uniform, disease-free plants.Many plants are effectively exclusively traded from artificially propagated sources. Recognising this, the Parties have taken the decision to exempt some specific species from CITES controls.These exemptions include a number of cacti (left), propagated Cyclamen persicum (centre left), one species of Euphorbia (Euphorbioa trigona, centre right) and Phalaenopsis orchid hybrids (right) packed to the required standards.[Note to speaker: The exemption for Phalaenopsis hybrids applies only to consignments of greater than 100 plants packed separately and accompanied by a document such as an invoice which states their number and type. Details of the full list of exemptions can be found by checking the latest CITES Appendices on The exemptions may be subject to change at future CoPs so check the website before you lecture!]CoP13 Amendments: CoP13 considered a range of proposals to exclude additional orchid hybrids from CITES contol. Check the CITES website to determine if any of these proposals were adopted.Kaktusy, Cyclamen persicum, Euphorbia trigona, Phalenopsis hybrid
66 Plant Groups Covered by CITES 37 CITES and PlantsPlant Groups Covered by CITES 37SouhrnNejdůležitější CITESOVÉ rostlinyjeich části, deriváty, výrobkyVýjimky z kontrolySlide 37: SummaryWe have:taken a brief look at some of the main plant groups subject to CITES controls, such as orchids and cacti;seen that CITES controls may apply to parts, derivatives and products, as well as plants themselves; and,seen that there are some important exemptions to the controls in order to facilitate the legitimate plant trade.