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Příběh výzkumného projektu Monika Metykova Northumbria University Newcastle

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Prezentace na téma: "Příběh výzkumného projektu Monika Metykova Northumbria University Newcastle"— Transkript prezentace:

1 Příběh výzkumného projektu Monika Metykova Northumbria University Newcastle

2 Kontext Květen 2004 rozšíření EU 8 nových členských států z bývalého komunistického bloku: Česká republika, Estónsko, Litva, Lotyšško, Maďarsko, Polsko, Slovensko a Slovinsko Pracovní trhy otevřené okamžitě: Irská republika, Švédsko a Spojené království Velké Británie a Sever. Irska Prosinec 2007 registrovaných (worker registration scheme) 800,000 pracovníků z EU8

3 Téma Transnacionální životy migrantů z nových členských států EU v Spojeném královtsví.

4 Otázky Jak si migranti vytváří nový domov? Jaké místo má v jejich životech spojení se “starým” domovem? Jak se vytváří pocit sounáležitosti (belonging)? Kdy a kde se cítí doma? Jakou roli sehrávají média? Obzvlášť nová média?

5 Teorie Transnacionalizace Domov/identita/příslušnost ke skupině Migrace a média Fenomenologická geografie

6 Metodologie a metoda Metodologie – 'filosofie' výzkumu Metoda – nástroj výzkumu Co a jak navařit versus čím vařit?

7 Metodologické otázky Rámování výzkumu – které teoretické a metodologické rámce budou nejvhodnější? Výběr metody – kvantitativní/kvalitativní, longitudinální (dlouhodbý) nebo jednorázový výzkum, metoda analýzy dat atd.

8 Teoretické rámování Existující literatura – identita a migrace; diaspora; diaspora a média; identita a média Můj “problém” – praktiky, které si běžně neuvědomujeme a nereflektujeme Identita není vhodným rámcem Vhodnější rámce: každodennost a “vytváření” místa (citová investice a rutiny mění a vytváří místo)

9 Metoda Hloubková, zkušenosti jednotlivce a reflexe těchto zkušeností – prostor a čas pro reflexi Kvalitativní Rozhovor anebo skupinová diskuse (focus group) Metoda analýzy dat – atlas.ti Kritéria pro výběr respondentů (které proměnné jsou klíčové?) Místo bydliště v UK, “čerstvě” příchozí z nové členské země Praktické otázky – rozpočet, dosažitelnost respondentů, jazyk, uskladnění a zpracování dat Pilotní studie

10 Data Hloubkové rozhovory s 20 respondenty ze zemí EU8 v Londýně, Edinburghu a Newcastlu. Každý rozhovor trval minimálně hodinu a půl, rozhovory proběhly v zimě 2006 a na jaře 2007.

11 Transnacionalizace – úskalí národního “kontejneru” Vyhýbat se přístupům, které privilegují národ a národní “kontejner” Neumožňuje výzkum transnacionálních fenoménů

12 Místo vytváříme Prostor versus místo ‘When space feels thoroughly familiar … it has become place’ Tuan, Y.-F. (1977) Space and Place: The Perspective of Experience. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, p. 73). To illustrate this point, Tuan offers the example of someone gradually getting to know an urban area that was initially experienced as strange, learning to find ways about in it, so that eventually ‘what was strange town … becomes concrete place, filled with meaning’ (ibid., p. 199) His example is helpful because he stresses the potential for an individual’s environmental experiences (specifically, of familiarity and strangeness) to shift over time.

13 Rámec každodenního života Pojetí velmi široké, zahrnující návyky a rutiny, ‘everyday life is synonymous with the habitual, the ordinary, the mundane, yet it is also strangely elusive, that which resists our understanding and escapes our grasp. Like the blurred speck at the edge of one’s vision that disappears when looked at directly, the everyday ceases to be everyday when it is subject to critical scrutiny ’ (Felski, , The invention of everyday life. New Formations, 39, p. 15)

14 Nutná redukce 'The task is to determine what reductions of complexity will make best sense of the contemporary world and which ones are leaving out too many tones and voices, transforming them into what model builders call “noise”' (Wimmer&Glick Schiller (2002). Methodological nationalism and beyond: Nation-state building, migration and the social sciences. Global Networks 2(4), )

15 Výsledky analýzy Vytváření místa jako postupný proces Vztahy s místem a jeho obyvateli Vztah k “národu” Všudepřítomnost médií

16 Místo se vytváří postupně: nepatřím sem Petra (29, Maďarka) In the first two months I was very scared … I’d learned some English at home but not so much … At the beginning, I was even scared to travel on my own, so it was very bad … In fact, the trans­ port was very strange for me … I was literally feeling unwell on the underground … fear of an enclosed space. I couldn’t catch my breath. The fact … you had to look in a different direction when you stepped off the pavement as well … once I was almost run over by a car because I looked in the wrong direction.

17 Marczin (28, Polák) ‘I thought my English was so pure … but the worst thing was that they [the locals] didn’t understand me.’

18 Marta (28, ČR) Although I studied English at … university [in the Czech Republic], it was quite a shock … because I mean, really, the practical life in English is so different from what you actually learned... It’s sometimes small things like phrases … I do feel … a foreigner because I’m treated as such … in shops and when I meet people … It is based on my accent.

19 Agnes (31, Maď.) I was driving from the very beginning because... bus transport there is awful, so I had to buy a car … driving on the other side [of the road], sitting in the car on the other side. I didn’t know where I was, a big challenge … For a long time, when I knew I’d have to drive somewhere, I had a stomach ache … studying the map for half an hour and then, once I arrived, half an hour of catching my breath. It was … scary.

20 Nastává změna - “naučil/a” jsem se město Agnes - fear of driving ‘disappeared … after about half a year’, ‘I became a routine driver, discovering the city in small steps.’ Boris (25, Slovak) driver in London: ‘I can tell you … if you work in one area [in central London] for two years then you find your way, even blindfolded.’ Petra after 18 months in London: It’s no longer like, ‘Oh my God, I want to go from here to here. How do I do that?’ I know how to do that. I know how to get around … It was really nice because my parents visited me … nice that I could show them this and that … I travelled with them on the underground and my dad told me he was so proud that I could cope in this huge city, that he would be lost … It’s such a good feeling … There were difficult times at the beginning, but now I can really say that it’s good... To some extent, I consider myself a Londoner.

21 Místa, kde jsem doma Darek: Grassmarket, that’s one of the older parts of Edinburgh. I like walking there very early in the morning … when the street is empty. Magda: I like the Meadows [a large park with footpaths]. Darek: Yes, Meadows too, and Stockbridge … the special part for walking [by the river] … and … Cramond. Magda: There’s a small island, where you can walk when the sea isn’t in.

22 Počítačoví experti Internet, Skype, ICQ atd.

23 Média a pocit sounáležitosti Julius (31, SR): But friends at work, for example, would talk about sport, about a programme and in that case you are left out completely because you have no clue, you’re not following it. For example Big Brother, when it was on they were always talking about Niki did this etc. and you have no clue. Because you haven’t seen any of it although you can read something about it in papers but you don’t know. I didn’t use to watch it regularly but sometimes. Or some good programmes about which they explicitly told me: ‘Watch this.’ Or Jatin [a colleague] called me ‘This is on TV now, watch it.’ And I said ‘I don’t have a TV.’ So that was also a reason why I bought a TV [tuner card].

24 Marczin (28, Polák) Maybe because I haven’t got a lot of situations when I can talk about British stuff. Maybe with Scottish staff about the things like events in pop culture or something like that. Maybe sport but I am definitely totally not interested in football. So they say: ‘Have you heard about this?’ ‘No.’ And they definitely like to talk about football, especially the Scottish league. There are some Polish guys playing in Celtic and I didn’t know about them. I’m sorry. Football is like a religion.

25 Ilija (26, Slovinec) I entertain the idea of being British, I try to imagine what they did what I didn’t do and I usually feel I’m sorry, I’m sad that I will never be able to be a boy in an elementary school in England because I won’t be in elementary school any more. But I wouldn’t change what I did. Not because it’s better but because what I am is this and I don’t think it’s any better than anything else or any worse than anything else, it’s just that the symmetry is broken and I’ve already done this and now I’m this, not something else. But especially in Japan when I saw those boys in uniforms from elementary school I thought, wouldn’t it be interesting, they must have a totally different view of life because they did what they’re doing but I know that there are things I’ll never do and I’ll never be a part of and I don’t really mind.


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