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1 OPERATING SYSTEMS (2) Department of Computer Science Faculty of Civil Engineering, Brno University of Technology Information Technology 1.

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Prezentace na téma: "1 OPERATING SYSTEMS (2) Department of Computer Science Faculty of Civil Engineering, Brno University of Technology Information Technology 1."— Transkript prezentace:

1 1 OPERATING SYSTEMS (2) Department of Computer Science Faculty of Civil Engineering, Brno University of Technology Information Technology 1

2 2 MS-DOS singleuser, singletask operating system for PC derived from CPM very popular in 80. and the first half of 90. years shell (command line) still useful in Windows like OS Microsoft comp. starting

3 3 Basic commands help : command /? program loading and starting: or set actual disk: : set actual directory (folder) direct subfolder: cd any folder: cd parent folder: cd.. view content of actual folder full content: dir compressed content: dir /w content with paging: dir /p (dir | more) create folder: md delete folder: rd delete file: del rename file: ren view content of text file: type move file: move copy file: copy create system disk: sys : partitioning disk: fdisk formatting disk: format : MS-DOS

4 4 UNIX files and directories have their owner (user, group) access control list contain the rights for manipulating  owner (U)  group of owner(G)  others(O) type of rights R (read) – file reading, directory content W (write) – changes in file and directory content X (execute) – program executing, dir. entry drwxrwxrwx-rw-r-----drwxr-xr-x

5 5 Basic commands help : man command program executing: set actual directory direct subfolder: cd random folder: cd parent folder: cd.. content of actual directory full listing: ls –l (ll) short listing: ls –f (lsf) paged listing: ll | more create directory: mkdir delete directory: rmdir delete file: rm rename (move) file: mv view content of file: cat copy file: cp UNIX

6 6 General UNIX Architecture

7 7 Windows NT Workstation Windows NT Server Selected properties: –platform independent (HAL) –preemptive multitasking –user validating –NTFS – secure file system –communication protocols support for LAN and WAN –graphic tools for system administering –domain philosophy –Domain = logical group of computers with shared set of users and other resources –higher reliability Windows NT

8 8 Configuration control panels registry – application regedit or regedt32 –HKEY_CURRENT_USER - config. of actual logged user –HKEY_USERS – profiles of all users –HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE – config. od computer (for all users) –HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT – subset of HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE –HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG – actually used HW profile User account –Groups: local global –Standard groups: Everyone Administrators System

9 9 exploits the power of today’s 32-bit microprocessors modular structure for flexibility executes on a variety of hardware platforms modified microkernel architecture not a pure microkernel many system functions outside of the microkernel run in kernel mode any module can be removed, upgraded, or replaced without rewriting the entire system Windows 2000

10 10 Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) isolates the operating system from platform- specific hardware differences Microkernel most-used and most fundamental components of the operating system Device drivers translate user I/O function calls into specific hardware device I/O requests Windows 2000 – Layered Structure

11 11 I/O manager Object manager Security reference monitor Process/thread manager Local procedure call (LPC) Facility Virtual memory manager Cache manager Windows/graphics modules W2K Executive

12 12 Special system support processes Ex: logon process and the session manager Server processes Environment subsystems User applications Windows 2000 – User Processes

13 13 Simplifies the Executive - possible to construct a variety of APIs Improves reliability - each service runs as a separate process with its own partition of memory - clients cannot not directly access hardware Provides a uniform means from applications to communicate via LPC Provides base for distributed computing Windows 2000 – Client/Server Model

14 14 SMP – Symmetric Multiprocessing Different routines can execute simultaneously on different processors Multiple threads of execution within a single process may execute on different processors simultaneously Server processes may use multiple threads Share data and resources between process Windows 2000 – Threads and SMP

15 15 Windows 2000 Architecture

16 16 Resource sharing disk, folder, file, printer etc. – can be offered for sharing controlled permissions to the shared resources

17 17 long names support, owner, access control permissions: R Read – read file/folder contents W Write – change file/folder contents, create new files/subfolders X eXecute – execute a program, traverse folder D Delete – delete file/folder P Change Permissions – change file’s/folder’s permission settings O Take Ownership – take file/folder ownership Some standard permission groups (Windows NT): Read(RX) (RX) Change(RWXD) (RWXD) Full ControlAll All No Access NTFS

18 18 Windows Me Windows Millenium Edition Deset hlavních důvodů pro inovaci na OS Windows Me importování a úprava domácích videofilmů přesun sbírky fotografií z krabice od bot na pevný disk vytvoření archivu a rejstříku oblíbené hudby ochrana důležitých souborů obnovení původních nastavení počítače nalezení odpovědí na hledané otázky použití počítače k programování videa či termostatu propojení počítačů v domácnosti efektivnější komunikace s přáteli a spolupracovníky hraní her na nové úrovni

19 19 Windows XP Windows XP Professional – vhodný pro firmy a náročné uživatele; postaven na základě jádra použitého v systémech Windows 2000 a Windows NT Workstation – NT Kernel; vysoká úroveň výkonu, bezpečnosti a stability Windows XP Home Edition – zejména pro domácí použití

20 20 Windows CE Windows pro přenosná zařízení typu Handheld PC nebo Palm PC zcela odlišná verze Windows, která není kompatibilní s X86 based Windows začínají uplatňovat jako AutoPC tj. počítač do auta


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