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Prague 25.-26.5.2009European Conference on Dignity and Hazard in the Elderly Media construction of reality represenation of Old People and Old Age in the.

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Prezentace na téma: "Prague 25.-26.5.2009European Conference on Dignity and Hazard in the Elderly Media construction of reality represenation of Old People and Old Age in the."— Transkript prezentace:

1 Prague European Conference on Dignity and Hazard in the Elderly Media construction of reality represenation of Old People and Old Age in the Czech Media Mgr. Renáta Sedláková, Ph.D. Department of journalism Palacký University in Olomouc Mgr. Lucie Vidovićová, Ph.D. Research Institute for Labour and Social Affairs

2 Prague European Conference on Dignity and Hazard in the Elderly •demographic changes: ageing of the Czech/EU population •age as a social construct •media as key agents participating on the proces of the social construction of reality REASONS FOR RESEARCH

3 Prague European Conference on Dignity and Hazard in the Elderly MEDIA CONSTRUCTION OF REALITY Media are: the main source of knowledge about outer world. Their power is especially in the cases about which we do not have our own experiences. "Here may lie the most important effect of mass communication, its ability to mentally order and organize our world for us. In short, the mass media may not be successful in telling us what to think, but they are stunningly successful in telling us what to think about" [Shaw & McCombs 1977]. •representation of reality in the media •representation of the Others in the media

4 Prague European Conference on Dignity and Hazard in the Elderly … why media really matter… »”But why such old ladies? And why such cruel attacks,” not just the judge but also the associate justice asked. “Old people are trustful and inattentive. I learned from the media how easily they could be deceived,” the monstrous human explained how his long series of crimes had started.« (Blesk , p. 6) media representation as a self-fulfilling prophecy

5 Prague European Conference on Dignity and Hazard in the Elderly MEDIA: •do not reflect reality, but create it - theory of media construction of reality (agenda setting,topic selection) •create images •(re)produce stereotypes •ascribe meaning to: people, events have the power to exclude or include social groups and individuals  have the power to exclude or include social groups and individuals

6 Prague European Conference on Dignity and Hazard in the Elderly 2 waves of research – year 2004 and analysis of printed media – nationwide dailies: Mladá fronta Dnes, Právo, Lidové noviny, Hospodářské noviny, Blesk + Aha, Šíp (cca articles) - analysis of the main news services of nationwide television channels: Czech television (public service broadcaster) - Události Nova (commercial) - Televizní noviny Prima (commercial) – Deník (cca 700 pieces of news) -content analysis + interpretative sociological reading -key words: senior, seniors, pension, (male/female) pensioner, retirement, retired person, old age, old aged people, old, old woman, old man, elderly, elderly person, grandmother, grandfather. - only transcriptions (written part) of the news (without visual part of the news and pictures) RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

7 Prague European Conference on Dignity and Hazard in the Elderly Quantity of news issued in 2004 and 2008 count television news dailies cca 7500 cca % 50 % myth of marginality J. Hartley: myth of marginality – coverage which overrides complexity of the life of minorities and starves for the news from mainstream society; simplyfication, generalization and positioning to the margin of the society increasing coverage of minorities does not mean simultaneously their understanding UNDERREPRESENTATION

8 Prague European Conference on Dignity and Hazard in the Elderly Share of messages by media type Newspapers/televisions Mladá fronta Dnes (top readed) 72%55% Blesk (tabloid) 13%6% Právo9%17% Hospodářské noviny (quality press, economy oriented) 5%6% Lidové noviny1%9% Aha (tabloid) 3% Šíp (tabloid) 3% Count 100 % of articles Nova - Televizní noviny (commercial) 39%25% Prima – Deník (commercial) 32%33% ČT1 – Události (public service) 29%43% Count 100 % of news261435

9 Prague European Conference on Dignity and Hazard in the Elderly Significance of the article Old people and old age as: NEWSPAPER (%) MAIN THEME SECONDARY THEME MENTIONED THEME Aha Blesk Šíp Hospodářské noviny Lidové noviny Mladá fronta Právo count20 %30 %50 %

10 Prague European Conference on Dignity and Hazard in the Elderly Thematic frames of printed articles Topic2004Topic2008 Economy34%Economy22% Crime28%Politics22% Life story8%Crime20% Culture8%Social politics and social work13% Social work7%Leasure time9% Health4%Life story7% Demography2%Health5% Politics2%Culture5% Housing1%Housing4% Other1%Other6% 62% 64%

11 Prague European Conference on Dignity and Hazard in the Elderly Thematic frames of television news téma/rok2004téma Crime38%1.Politics30% 2.Political economy28%2.Crime18% 3.Tragedy12%3.Ekonomy16% 4.Life story9%4.Life story11% 5.Social work6%5.Tragedy7% 6.Culture2%6.Social work5% 7.Health2%7.Culture4% 8.Demography1%8.Housing3% 9.Health3% Other1%Other3% 78% 64%

12 Prague European Conference on Dignity and Hazard in the Elderly What is not mentioned/presented: John Hartley: for analysis of representation of any event/person or group is also very important what is not presented – what remains hidden? ageism, discrimination everyday life heterogeneity within the group of older people realised activities feminization of old age intergenerational relations domestic violence

13 Prague European Conference on Dignity and Hazard in the Elderly Old people as victims of crimes defenceless, lonely, trustful grandmams kind-hearted granies and grandadies „Hasiči je považují za podvodníky a varují před nimi hlavně důvěřivé důchodce.“ „Hasiči je považují za podvodníky a varují před nimi hlavně důvěřivé důchodce.“ ČT Old people as ofenders or accused of crimes trafic accident, curious crimes: shouting, growing marihuana, maltreat of annimals and people „Po chvíli se rozzuřený důchodce dostal od slov k činům. Domů si došel pro plynovou pistoli.“ „Po chvíli se rozzuřený důchodce dostal od slov k činům. Domů si došel pro plynovou pistoli.“ NOVA CRIME

14 Prague European Conference on Dignity and Hazard in the Elderly Kam zmizela demografická panika? fenomén veřejně artikulovaných obav z budoucího vývoje společností na základě měnící se demografické struktury jejich populace, který vychází z předpokladu, že společnost ztratí svůj blahobyt, dojde-li k zestárnutí její věkové struktury. (Walker 2002, Bytheway 1995) morální panika - postup, kterým média přispívají k sociální stigmatizaci či exkluzi skupin/jedinců, jež sama nejprve označila jako deviantní/nebezpečné („my“ vs. „oni“) ( Cohen 1967 ) »V roce 2050 se Česko změní v zemi důchodců« NOVA Ačkoli byla v roce 2008 schválena novela důchodové reformy, včetně posunutí hranice vstupu do důchodu do vyššího věku, televize ve zpravodajství demografické změny české populace v této souvislosti netematizovala.

15 Prague European Conference on Dignity and Hazard in the Elderly INFOTEINMENT INFORMATION + ENTERTAINMENT Language: key tool of construction of reality – power feature of significantion of the Others -> social exclusion „Pro zloděje jsou totiž důchodci snadnou kořistí.“ „Pro zloděje jsou totiž důchodci snadnou kořistí.“ PRIMA not neutral emotive symptomatic significations …spousta babiček z domova důchodců posílaly napletený bačkůrky.“ „…spousta babiček z domova důchodců posílaly napletený bačkůrky.“ ČT „Sedmdesáti sedmiletá babička byla podchlazená, ale komunikovala.“ ČT dramatization „… poplatky definitivně znemožní těmto lidem důstojný život.“ NOVA impact on emotions and personalization „Jen krůček od smrti byla sedmapadesátiletá invalidní důchodkyně z Karlových Varů. Bála se, jít k lékaři.“ „Jen krůček od smrti byla sedmapadesátiletá invalidní důchodkyně z Karlových Varů. Bála se, jít k lékaři.“ NOVA

16 Prague European Conference on Dignity and Hazard in the Elderly DOES AGE MATTER? (man) •Nicola Smith (man) hurt in a car accident. (Romany) •George Smith (Romany) hurt in a car accident. (68) •Mary Smith (68) hurt in a car accident. Journalists tend to overuse indication of chronological age of the actors of presented events. Age quoted also in irrelevant cases. Multiplication of status.

17 Prague European Conference on Dignity and Hazard in the Elderly BASIC FINDINGS: old people and old age topics are still marginal in media; Information presented from the majority point of view; older people are used as commentators of specific events (ekonomic crisis, price raising, rental regulation) and mentioned as primary endangered group (e.g. of health risks) older people are used as commentators of specific events (ekonomic crisis, price raising, rental regulation) and mentioned as primary endangered group (e.g. of health risks) „Ekologická reforma se dotkne stovek tisíc lidí. … Nejvíce poškozeni budou důchodci.“ „Ekologická reforma se dotkne stovek tisíc lidí. … Nejvíce poškozeni budou důchodci.“ ČT1: „Senioři jsou tedy nemoci vydáni stále na pospas.“ „Senioři jsou tedy nemoci vydáni stále na pospas.“ PRIMA active older people (e.g. celebrities, artists) presented and celebrated as an exception: „No a teď vám ukážeme slíbeného muže, jehož vitalitu mu můžeme všichni skutečně jen závidět, Je mu neuvěřitelných sto jedna let a poslouchejte dobře, příští měsíc v Londýně poběží maraton.“ „No a teď vám ukážeme slíbeného muže, jehož vitalitu mu můžeme všichni skutečně jen závidět, Je mu neuvěřitelných sto jedna let a poslouchejte dobře, příští měsíc v Londýně poběží maraton.“ NOVA

18 Prague European Conference on Dignity and Hazard in the Elderly In comparision with the year 2004: - increase of articles (Právo, Lidové noviny and ČT) - widening of spectra of thematic frames of presented news; more attention devoted to social politics and social work and news about daily events, but still a quarter of news about crimes - decline of infantilization, patronizing and elderspeak - decline of news about demography emerge little difference between commercial media and media of public service and quality press - emerge little difference between commercial media and media of public service and quality press => SIMPLYFYING IMAGE WITH FEATURES REFERRING TO MYTHS OF OLD AGE AND STEREOTYPES: old + poor + trustful and endangered => SIMPLYFYING IMAGE WITH FEATURES REFERRING TO MYTHS OF OLD AGE AND STEREOTYPES: old + poor + trustful and endangered

19 Prague European Conference on Dignity and Hazard in the Elderly Thank you for your attention. „Takhle nějak vypadá všední den českého důchodce. Ráno vstane, nasnídá se. Koukne na seriál, uvaří oběd a pak si trochu odpočine. … Pak procházka nebo nákup. Večer zase televize. Jinou možnost stejně jako dalších více než dva miliony českých důchodců v podstatě nemá. Chybí vyžití a taky peníze.“ PRIMA


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