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Chyby v chatu. Oprava chyb I am choose two. I was in UK, I use PDA, but it is faster. I like electronic dictionary. I am sorrry, I not understand. I am.

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Prezentace na téma: "Chyby v chatu. Oprava chyb I am choose two. I was in UK, I use PDA, but it is faster. I like electronic dictionary. I am sorrry, I not understand. I am."— Transkript prezentace:

1 Chyby v chatu

2 Oprava chyb I am choose two. I was in UK, I use PDA, but it is faster. I like electronic dictionary. I am sorrry, I not understand. I am like reading- newpapers,journal. But it was sometimes heavy to reading.. Of course every day trace an Internet. Yes, I like reading read a week - journal Gong. Because I do using the , that is most fast.... Well I do send SMS. I used a postcard when I am a holliday... but I few used. No, I do not when I was young......Now no.

3 Čárky v angličtině

4 Čárka (comma) Studenti angličtiny se často dopouštějí té chyby, že naprosto nesprávně používají v anglických větách čárky. Na rozdíl od češtiny, v angličtině neoddělujeme všechny věty v souvětí čárkou. Na druhou stranu zase není pravda, že by se čárky v souvětí nepoužívaly vůbec.

5 Dvě hlavní věty Spojujeme-li dvě hlavní věty pomocí spojek AND, BUT apod. používání čárek záleží na délce jednotlivých vět. Jedná-li se o krátké věty, čárku nepíšeme: He opened the door and entered. I write songs but nobody likes them. Jsou-li věty v takovém souvětí delší, čárky zpravidla píšeme: Mr. Keller has made numerous complaints about the faulty product, but the company doesn't answer his phone calls. Zde samozřejmě není žádné objektivní měřítko, kdy je věta již dlouhá a kdy ne. Čárka se zde píše proto, aby souvětí bylo přehlednější a srozumitelnější. U kratších vět to tedy není nutné.

6 Věta hlavní a věta vedlejší Příslovečné věty V podřadném souvětí se pro používání čárek řídíme tím, v jakém pořadí věty jsou. Tak to platí především u vět příslovečných, tedy časových, podmínkových, místních, přípustkových atd. Je-li první věta hlavní, čárka se nepíše. Začínáme-li větou vedlejší, čárku použít musíme. You don't have to come if you don't want to. If you don't want to, you don't have to come. I make dinner when I come home from work. When I come home from work, I make dinner. There aren't many shops where he lives. Where he lives, there aren't many shops. He goes jogging every day although he's quite old. Although he's quite old, he goes jogging every day.

7 Vztažné věty Ve vztažných (přívlastkových) větách se řídíme tím, zda se jedná o vztažnou větu určující, či neurčující. Pokud je tato vedlejší věta pouze informací navíc, ale není pro význam souvětí důležitá, oddělujeme ji čárkami po obou stranách: Bill Murray, who is my favourite actor, is making a new film. Our house, which is quite old, will be repaired next year. Mr. Davies, whose son goes to school with Mark, is coming to see us on Friday night. Pokud však přívlastková věta určuje podstatné jméno, jedná se v podstatě o jeden větný člen (celý tento větný člen je nedělitelný) a čárky se v žádném případě nepíší: The actress who starred in Lost in Translation is quite pretty. The house where we live will be repaired next year. The man who lives next door has bought a new cat. Totéž platí i pro vztažné věty zkrácené příčestím.

8 Předmětné věty Předmětné věty od hlavní věty čárkami neoddělujeme: I don't know where you live. He told me that he was hungry. He doesn't know if he will be back in time for dinner. Tell me what you want to do. Podobně se čárkou neoddělují ani přací věty: I wish you were here. I wish I had more time. Čárkou však oddělujeme přímou řeč: He asked, "What's your name?" Julia said, "Oh, I'm so tired."

9 Příslovce a příslovečná určení Čárkou oddělujeme ve větě často příslovce, které nějak narušují běžný slovosled věty, či do věty jako takové vlastně nepatří (jsou to např. slova unfortunately, however, to my surprise, finally atd. - ty se používají k zasazení věty do kontextu, k vyjádření postoje mluvčího apod.) He did what he could. However, he failed. Unfortunately, it started raining. At first, I would like to tell you something about its history. He jumped onto the stage and, to my surprise, started singing. Pokud na začátek věty přesuneme příslovečné určení místa nebo času, je dobré ho také oddělit čárkou (i když to u krátkých příslovečných určení není nutné). In 1994, he started to work for BBC. In my house, we don't have any carpets. After breakfast, I usually go to work.

10 Další použití čárky Seznam: I bought a pizza, some bread, two beers and a newspaper. Před AND se na konci seznamu píše čárka pouze pokud je poslední položka dlouhá: I bought a pizza, some bread, two beers, and a funny-looking soft toy for my daughter. Přídavná jména Přídavná jména oddělujeme čárkou pokud nejsou před podstatným jménem: She was tall, slim and sexy. Před podstatným jménem čárkou přídavná jména většinou neoddělujeme, pouze pokud obě (všechna) udávají podobný typ informace (např. názor): I saw an interesting, funny movie. - obě přídavná jména vyjadřují názor.

11 Závěrem Výše jsou uvedené ty nejdůležitější případy, kdy čárky použít, a kdy nikoliv. Budete-li psát nějaký text v angličtině, snažte se mít tato pravidla na paměti. Ze všech interpunkčních znamének je čárka pro české studenty asi tím nejobtížnějším, protože ostatní (tečka, středník, otazník, vykřičník atd.) se od češtiny nikterak podstatně neliší.

12 Transactional Letter “Transactional” means that the letter has a particular purpose, and will require further action by its reader, usually in the form of a written response. The letter could be formal or informal. Informal transactional letter If you need something from a friend, or if you're replying to a friend's request, you can write him/her a transactional letter in an informal style. Your letter will include your friend's name and you can use colloquial expressions. Remember: the main purpose of the letter is to cause an action or to answer to such a request. Your letter should be to the point, clear, and concise.

13 Two basic types of informal transactional letters: a) requesting somebody to do something If you have any questions or requests, you can write him/her a letter that includes questions, instructions, etc. You should be clear about what you want to know and what you want to agree upon. Examples of this type of transactional letters include: invitations, questions, etc. b) answering to an input: An imput you may wish to respond to may be one of the following: an invitation, a request, a question, etc. The letter must be based on the information given in the question. The answer must be clear and accurate, so that the communication is quick and easy. Examples of a transactional letters include: writing to a friend to request details about a computer game, replying to a friend about arrangements for a party…

14 Typical features: Addressing: Dear [your friend's name] Introduction: - short and relevant. Stating the purpose of your letter: I'm writing to you to ask you... I would like to invite you... I would like to meet you in order to... etc. Giving information: - ask your question plainly - explain your position clearly etc. Give futher details: Say what you want to be done: Please, answer as soon as possible... Do you agree? I'm looking forward to meeting you there. etc.

15 Writing: Transactional letter (informal) Plan of the letter: 1.Your address at the top right hand corner (in exam papers should be omitted) 2.The date placed below the address in format day/month (Br) 3.Greetings: Dear Name,(don’t forget comma after name) 4.A few words of thanks for the received letter: – Thanks for your letter - it was great to hear from you. – Thanks for your letter about … – Thanks for your letter, it was so nice to receive the last news from you. – Thank you for your letter. I was very glad to hear from you. – Many thanks for your last letter. Say sorry in case you haven’t written for a long time – I’m sorry I haven’t written for ages/sooner/for so long, because I was …. 5.Describe why are you writing: In your letter you asked me… Well… 6.Give answers you were asked in the previous letter (or according to your task). Be sure you have mentioned all required items. 7.Ending: – I’m looking forward to hearing from you soon 8.Farewell: Take care, Cheers, Yours, Love, With best wishes then a comma and your name

16 Příklad dopisu Example 1 The letter should be to your friend Sam. In his last letter to you, he asked you some advice about English language courses. Required items: a) which school? b) number of hours a week? c) how many weeks of being there will be enough d) accommodation? e) excursions?

17 221b Baker Street London Great Britain(UK) 8th May 2006 Dear Sam, Thanks for your letter. It was great to hear from you. In your letter you asked me about what choice in language courses would be better for you. I’ll give you some tips about it with pleasure. Firstly, if you prefer active and bright nightlife, of course you should choose the school which located in London. About your lessons schedule I definitely suggest you don’t study at a very intensive pace but for too short a period of time. Usually it brings only tiredness and low results. So, don’t overload yourself and take lessons for 15 hours a week and during at least 4 weeks. Two weeks would be far too short to get involved in active speaking. About accommodation, living with a local family is better because you’ll have a great chance to improve your everyday spoken language level. And the last piece of advice about excursions. If I were you, instead of paying high prices for that, I’d buy a nice map of the city, take my photo camera and go round all the places of interest walking or riding a bicycle which you can rent there. I’m looking forward to hearing from you soon. Best wishes, Andrew

18 Psaní žádosti Vyberte si jedno z následujících témat a napište žádost: 1)You want your friend to help you with your homework. 2)You want your parents to send you winter clothes. 3)You want your brother to fix your computer.

19 Psaní dotazu You are flying to the USA for a month. You are going to travel there alone. You have a friend, who was there last year. In your letter, you should ask your friend about the following: a) cost (budget?) b) travel (bus, train, air?) c) recommendations (national parks, cities, holiday resorts?) d) weather (hot, tornadoes, warm ocean?) e) dangers (gangs, terrorists, muggers?)

20 Psaní odpovědi Vyberte si jeden z následujících dopisů a odpovězte na ně: Write responses to the following letters from your friends: (Hint: Do not forget to answer all your friends ask) 1) Dear friend! I've moved to a new flat in the city centre. It is rather small, but nice. However, it is absolutely unfurnished and I need to go to Ikea to buy a bed, a table and some chairs. I'd like to ask you, if I could borrow your car for the weekend. Is it possible? If so, please, let me know when I can come for the car and when I should bring it back. Thank you very much! George

21 2) Dear Jane. How are you? We haven't seen each other for a long time. I'm coming to a fair to Brno next week and we must meet, finally! I'm coming on Thursday afternoon and I'm leaving on Sunday afternoon. Could we go to lunch on Friday or Saturday or a dinner on Friday? Will you have free time? Where should we meet? Do you have a favourite cafe or restaurant in Brno? There will be some colleagues from my work coming with me. They would like to go to a ballet. What is the best opera house in Brno and how can they get there? They would be very glad for your recommendations. I'm looking forward to seeing you soon! Hilda

22 3) Dear George, I've become my studies at Masaryk University this semester. The town is very pretty and my new colleagues and professors are lovely. I like it very much. But I don't understend the credit system. Could you please tell me, how many credits I need? What would you recommend - should I take many courses or only a few? What if I don't finish some course - will I be expelled from the university? I'm staying at Vinarska. I think you know it, it is a big dormitory, but it is quite far from my faculty. Do you know about a place in the center where I could move? How expensive are flats in Brno? Thank you for your priceless information. I'll see you at school, Martha

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