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ADVICE OBLIGATION PROHIBITION SPECULATING Modal verbs.

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Prezentace na téma: "ADVICE OBLIGATION PROHIBITION SPECULATING Modal verbs."— Transkript prezentace:

1 ADVICE OBLIGATION PROHIBITION SPECULATING Modal verbs

2 NÁZEV ŠKOLY: Gymnázium Lovosice, Sady pionýrů 600/6 ČÍSLO PROJEKTU: CZ.1.07/1.5.00/ NÁZEV MATERIÁLU: VY_32_INOVACE_4B_11_Modal.verbs TÉMA SADY: Gramatická cvičení z angličtiny ROČNÍK: oktáva/4.A DATUM VZNIKU: říjen 2013 AUTOR: Mgr. Lucie Kučerová

3 Anotace tento učební materiál je určen k prezentaci a procvičení pokročilých struktur anglických modálních sloves na interaktivní tabuli všechny snímky prezentace jsou opatřeny animacemi tak, aby poskytovali studentům dostatečný prostor k interakci a komunikaci v angličtině  nejprve se po kliknutí objeví příklady, až poté teoretický výklad problému, tudíž mohou studenti dedukovat a analyzovat daný problém nejprve sami a následně si vše ověřit teoretickým výkladem snímky číslo čtyři, pět a šest se zabývají používáním standardních struktur modálních sloves v angličtině pro vyjádření rady, povinnosti a nutnosti snímky číslo osm a devět slouží k výkladu pokročilejších struktur modálních sloves sloužících ke spekulaci v přítomném i minulém čase snímky číslo deset a jedenáct jsou určeny k procvičení dané gramatiky  první cvičení je řešeno formou doplňování patřičných tvarů modálních sloves do vět; správná odpověď se objeví po kliknutí na rámeček, jež následkem toho zmizí  druhé cvičení je zaměřeno na komunikaci ve skupinách; studenti mají za úkol vyřešit kriminální případy a při diskuzi použít co nejvíce modálních sloves pro spekulaci; správné řešení se objeví po kliknutí výukový materiál je vytvořen tak, aby podpořil samostatné myšlení a co nejvyšší interakci studentů v hodině angličtiny

4 Advice: should/ought to should or ought to is used to give advice  the negative forms are shouldn‘t and ought not to  should is used more often  ought to has a bit formal connotation  We should talk in English.  You ought to do more excercise.  We shouldn‘t speak too loudly. We often use I think + should or I don‘t think + should  I think + shouldn‘t is not usually used  I think you should learn more.  I don‘t think we should go to the cinema today.

5 Advice: must to give strong advice to ourselves supported by some emotions, not rules or obligations  I really must start studying harder.  It‘s getting dark. I must go home. to make strong recommendations to others, based on the speaker‘s own opinion  You must try the appe pie. It‘s delicious!  You must tidy your room. It‘s incredibly messy! In both cases must has similar meaning to should, however expresses stronger emotion as well

6 Obligation: have to/mustn‘t to talk about duties  I have to wash up every day. (My mum said so.)  We have to study two languages. (It‘s compulsory.) don‘t have to/doesn‘t have to and needn‘t expresses the lack of obligation, not prohibition  You don‘t have to write the test today. We will write it tomorrow  Mark doesn‘t have to tidy his room, his mum does it.  We needn‘t go to school tomorrow. It‘s holiday! mustn‘t is used for prohibition  In a gallery, you usually mustn‘t touch the displays.  We mustn‘t come late to school.

7 Necessity: need to express necessary behaviour to obtain a certain goal  You need to dial zero if you are calling outside the school. the lack of necessity is expressed by needn‘t or don‘t/doesn‘t need to  We needn‘t bring any food./We don‘t need to bring any food. There will be lots of it at the party.  We tend to use don‘t need to rather than needn‘t when talking about a general fact You don‘t need to pay full taxes if you are a student.

8 Speculating Modal verbs are often used to express speculation or deduction  MUST  the speaker is sure the thing is possible I haven‘t seen Mary yet. She must be ill then.  CAN‘ T  the speaker is sure the thing is impossible She can‘t be at home. She went to Paris yesterday.  MAY/MIGHT/COULD  the speaker speculates if the thing is possible or not and could refer to future as well Benjamin might/may/could come, but I am not sure.  in negative only may not or might not can be used He has overslept, so he may/might not catch the bus.

9 Speculating in past we use have + past participle  Somebody was at the door. It must have been James.  Henry can‘t have told you to come. She didn‘t know it. have + past participle is also used for past with should/ought to  You should have told me before. I can‘t help you now. needn‘t have + past participle is used to describe things which happened but weren‘t necessary  The bus was delayed so we needn‘t have hurried so much. didn‘t need to + past participle is used to describe something which didn‘t happen because it wasn‘t necessary  The headache wasn‘t so bad so I didn‘t need to have taken any pills.

10 practice n°1 complete the sentences with a modal and the correct form of the words in brackets  You should have told you weren‘t coming. I wouldn‘t have been waiting for so long. (tell)  Let‘s go to bed. We must get up early. (get up)  I am not sure where to go tomorrow. We might go to a museum. (go)  If you are a member of the sports club you don‘t need to pay for the entrance. (pay)  You needn‘t have bought me such a big present! (buy)  The phone can‘t have rung. It‘s broken. (ring)  It‘s a well paid job, but she has to work long hours. (work)  People are opening their umbrellas. It must have started to rain. (start)  Your friends are late. The could be lost. (lose)  That was a dangerous thing to do. You might have been killed. (kill)

11 practice n°2 Three Mystery Cases What might have happened? 1. Susan was found dead lying in the middle of a meadow with a bag on her back. No footprints had been seen there. Susan was a parachutist and her parachute didn‘t open. 2. When Eve heard a well-known melody, she immediately grabbed her gun. Eve could hear the melody of her jewel box so she knew a thief must have opened it.

12 Zdroje obrázků V prezentaci byly požity obrázky z galerie Microsoft Office, včetně webu Office.com


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