Prezentace na téma: "NÁZEV ŠKOLY: Základní škola Strančice, okres Praha - východ AUTOR: Mgr. Lenka Kulhavá NÁZEV: VY_32_INOVACE_126.96.36.199. O 07 TEMA: Angličtina ČÍSLO PROJEKTU:"— Transkript prezentace:
NÁZEV ŠKOLY: Základní škola Strančice, okres Praha - východ AUTOR: Mgr. Lenka Kulhavá NÁZEV: VY_32_INOVACE_ O 07 TEMA: Angličtina ČÍSLO PROJEKTU: CZ.1.07/1.4.00/
ANOTACE: Prezentace je určena pro žáky 8. a 9. třídy ZŠ a shrnuje učivo o předpřítomných (present perfect simple/continuous) a minulých časech (past simple/continuous) a jejich užití v angličtině. V první získají žáci systematický přehled tvoření výše uvedených časů s příklady. V druhé části najde učitel pro žáky mnoho gramatických cvičení, které mohou být využity k procvičování probírané látky nebo k jejich následnému testování. Prezentace nemá být v žádném případě probrána během jedné vyučovací hodiny, ale měla by být rozvržena do několika vyučovacích hodin, aby si děti mohly látku dobře zapamatovat a procvičit.
PRESENT PERFECT / PAST SIMPLE Lenka Kulhavá
The present perfect simple expresses an action that is still going on or that stopped recently, but has an influence on the present. It puts emphasis on the result. The present perfect simple PositiveNegativeQuestion I / you / we / theyI have spoken.I have not spoken.Have I spoken? he / she / itHe has spoken.He has not spoken.Has he spoken? Form of Present Perfect Use of Present Perfect puts emphasis on the result Example: She has written five letters. action that is still going on Example: School has not started yet. action that stopped recently Example: She has cooked dinner. finished action that has an influence on the present Example: I have lost my key. action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment of speaking Example: I have never been to Australia.
The present perfect continuous expresses an action that recently stopped or is still going on. It puts emphasis on the duration or course of the action. The present perfect continuous PositiveNegativeQuestion I / you / we / they I have been speaking. I have not been speaking. Have I been speaking? he / she / it He has been speaking. He has not been speaking. Has he been speaking? Use of Present Perfect Continuous puts emphasis on the duration or course of an action (not the result) Example: She has been writing for two hours. action that recently stopped or is still going on Example: I have been living here since finished action that influenced the present Example: I have been working all afternoon. Form of Present Perfect Continuous
The past simple expresses an action in the past taking place once, never, several times. It can also be used for actions taking place one after another or in the middle of another action. The past simple PositiveNegativeQuestion no differencesI spoke.I did not speak.Did I speak? Form of Past Simple Use of Past Simple action in the past taking place once, never or several times Example: He visited his parents every weekend. actions in the past taking place one after the other Example: He came in, took off his coat and sat down. action in the past taking place in the middle of another action Example: When I was having breakfast, the phone suddenly rang. if sentences type II (If I talked, …) Example: If I had a lot of money, I would share it with you.
The past continuous puts emphasis on the course of an action in the past. The past continuous Form PositiveNegativeQuestion I / he / she / itI was speaking.I was not speaking.Was I speaking? you / we / theyYou were speaking. You were not speaking. Were you speaking? Use of Past Continuous puts emphasis on the course of an action in the past Example: He was playing football. two actions happening at the same time (in the past) Example: While she was preparing dinner, he was washing the dishes. action going on at a certain time in the past Example: When I was having breakfast, the phone suddenly rang.
Past Simple– Past Continuous Form Past SimplePast Continuous irregular verbs: see 2nd column of irregular verbs I spoke regular verbs: verb + ed I worked past form of 'be' + ing form of verb: I was speaking you were speaking he / she / it was speaking we were speaking they were speaking Exceptions when adding 'ed' : when the final letter is e, only add d. Example: love - loved after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled Example: admit - admitted final l is always doubled in British English (not in American English) Example: travel - travelled after a consonant, final y becomes i. (but: not after a vowel) Example: worry - he worried but: play - he played Exceptions when adding 'ing' : silent e is dropped (but: does not apply for -ee) Example: come - coming but: agree - agreeing after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled Example: sit - sitting final l is always doubled in British English (not in American English) Example: travel - travelling final ie becomes y. Example: lie - lying
Use of past simple and past continuous: After another or at the same time? Do you want to express that the actions in the past happened one after another or at the same time? Past SimplePast Continuous after another She came home, switched on the computer and checked her s. at the same time Simon was playing on the computer while his brother was watching TV. New action or already in progress? If you want to express that a new action happened in the middle of another action, you need both tenses: Simple Past the new action and Past Progressive for the action already in progress. Simple PastPast Continuous new action My mobile rang (when I was sitting in a meeting.) action already in progress While I was sitting in a meeting, (my mobile suddenly rang.) Only mentioning or emphasising progress? Do you just want to mention that an action took place in the past (also used for short actions)? Or do you want to put emphasis on the progress, e.g. that an action was taking place at a certain time? Simple PastPast Continuous just mentioning Colin played rugby yesterday. emphasising progress Yesterday at six o'clock,Colin was playing rugby.
Q1 - He..... there when he was a child has lived lived Q2 - I her since last year haven't seen didn't see Q3 - They a few minutes ago left have left Q4 - She unemployed since she left school has not been was not Q5 - They the contract last week finalised have finalised Q6 - The film yet hasn't started didn't start
Q7 - She ill since Thursday was has been Q8 - I the project last night have finished finished Q9 - Look- someone their handbag in the room left has left Q to Rome? Did you ever go Have you ever been Q11 - I can't get into my house because I my keys lost have lost Q12 - Nobody the phone when it rang answered has answered
Q13 - I up smoking last year gave have given Q14 - You can't see her because she home has gone went Q to the United States? Did you ever go Have you ever been Q16 - I never my grandmother as she died before I was born knew have known Q17 - It's the first time I caviar ate have eaten Q18 - The first time we was just the other day spoke have spoken
Q19 - It stinks in here; someone smoking was has been Q20 - He's in hospital because he leg has broken broke Q21 - I've known her since we at school together were have been
1)You can't talk to her now. She _________ to Prague. gone she gone - není přijatelná kombinace slov has been - toto by znamenalo, že tam už někdy byla has gone = odjela is gone she is gone = je pryč 2) My car won't start again. It's the fifth time this _________ this week. happened minulý čas by neměl žádnou návaznost na přítomnost, zde je však kontext přítomný happens 'it happens' by znamenalo 'stává se to' has been happening = znamenalo by, že už se to děje nějakou dobu (jeden děj nepřetržitě) has happened = je to již po páté 3) Why are you so dirty? - I _________ football. am playing I am playing = hraju právě teď have been playing říkáme, jaká činnost vedla k tomu, že něco je v určitém stavu have played I have played = zahrál jsem si fotbal, zajímá nás výsledek, nikoliv stav jeho oblečení play I play football = jsem fotbalista (znamená to však, že fotbalisti jsou normálně špinaví?) 4) Where's my car? What _________ to it? happens what happens = co se obecně s autem stane.... has been happening zajímalo by nás, co vedlo k jeho současnému stavu, např. proč je tak špinavé.... has happened co se s ním stalo (zajímá nás výsledek) is happening zajímalo by nás, co se to právě s naším autem děje, např. proč tak divně vrčí apod.
5) This is our dog. We _________ him for three years. 've been having HAVE ve významu 'mít' je stavové sloveso a nemá tedy průběhový čas. Tato varianty by se dala použít ve významu 'dávat si, užívat si, jíst' 've had mám ho už nějakou dobu, HAVE je zde stavové sloveso (nevyjadřuje činnost) a nemá tedy průběhový tvar had minulý čas by se dal použít pro psa, kterého už nemáme. have HAVE by pouze vyjadřovalo,že máme psa, nikoliv jak už dlouho 6) It's ten years since I _________ him. 've last seen = naposledy jsem ho viděl před deseti lety - tedy minulost, nelze tedy použít předpřítomný čas didn't see česky je sice 'co jsem ho neviděl', v angličtině je to 'od té doby, co jsem ho viděl naposled' haven't seen česky je sice 'co jsem ho neviděl', v angličtině je to 'od té doby, co jsem ho viděl naposled last saw = naposledy jsem ho viděl před deseti lety - tedy minulost 7) They _________ on the TV just after breakfast and they are still watching it! have been turning průběhový čas se sem vůbec nehodí have turned je zde určený čas v minulosti (po snídani), nelze tedy použít předpřít. čas turned je zde určený čas v minulosti (po snídani), tedy min. čas turn přít. prostý čas by vyjadřoval stálou pravdu (běžně zapínají TV po snídani)
8) Hadrian's Wall _________ by the Romans. built toto je činný rod, ale Hadriánova zeď sama nic nepostavila has been being built has been being built = již se (nějakou dobu) staví has been built Hadrianova zeď byla postavena v historii - min. čas was built byla postavena v historii - min. čas 9) You´re back! When _________? did you return ptáme se zde na čas, proto min. čas have you been returning chybně vytvořená otázka v min. čase have you returned ptáme se zde na čas, proto min. čas returned you předpřít. čas by byl např. v otázce 'Už ses vrátil?' 10) I was excited about Spy Kids 3 last week, because I _________ a 3D movie before. didn't never see dva zápory ve větě nemohou být had never seen nikdy předtím - předminulý čas have never seen toto by znamenalo 'nikdy v životě' - dotyčný však 3D film už viděl minulý týden a od té doby jich mohl vidět již mnoho never see toto by znamenalo: nikdy nevídám
She has studied very well at school. She studied very well at school. Have you ever visited Italy? Did you ever visit Italy? Thomas Edison has invented the light bulb. Thomas Edison invented the light bulb. How long have you had this job? How long did you have this job? I have never smoked a cigarette ever since. I didn't smoke a cigarette ever since. Charlie Chaplin has made a lot of films. Charlie Chaplin made a lot of films. When have you last been to the cinema? When did you last go to the cinema? It's the best car I've ever had. It's the best car I ever had. How many times have you been married? How many times were you married? We haven't had lunch yet. We didn't have lunch yet. WHICH OF THESE SENTENCES ARE RIGHT?
A: Last year to Australia (go, I) B: Really? (never, I, be) there. How ? (it, go) A: Well, it (go) quite well. (saw, I) many beautiful places and ( meet) many interesting people. B: ( you, think) of going there once again? A: Yes, I'm planning to go there with husband next year. (not, be, he) to Sydney for 12 years. What about you? Where are you going this year? B: Well, as always I'm not going abroad. (never, I, be) really fond of it. I just find such trips boring. A: That's too bad. (I, hoped, really) you would come with me next year. Make a dialogue:
1.They _____ a few minutes ago. leaved had leave have left left 2. I _____ several races. wined have won won have win 3. _____ Mount Everest? Did he climbed Has he climb Has he climbed Does he climbed 4. Sue _____ in a balloon. didn´t never fly has never flown hasn´t never flown has never fly
5. Where _____ last year? did he swim was he swimed has he swim did he swum 6. Angelina Jolie is our favourite actor. We _____ nearly all her films. did seen have seen saw has seen 7. She _____ this work in didn´t start hasn´t started didn´t started hasn´t start 8. They _____ tins, tents, sleeping bags, food, medicine and empty bottles. didn´t collect haven´t collect haven´t collected didn´t collected
9. My friend _____ out somewhere. didn´t went hasn´t just went has just went has just gone 10. _____ into a hole in the pavement? Have you ever fall Have you ever fallen Did you ever fall Did you ever fallen
Present Perfect. English WebPages [online] [cit ]. Dostupné z: Simple Past – Past Progressive. Ego4u [online] [cit ]. Dostupné z: Simple Past (Past Simple). Ego4u [online] [cit ]. Dostupné z: Present Perfect Progressive. Ego4u [online] [cit ]. Dostupné z: Present Perfect Simple. Ego4u [online] [cit ]. Dostupné z: Past Simple & Present Perfect. UsingEnglish.com [online] [cit ]. Dostupné z: Present Perfect vs. Past. Help For English [online] [cit ]. Dostupné z: Present Perfect and Past Simple tenses. Eclectic English Home Page [online] [cit ]. Dostupné z: Past Simple and Present Perfect. English Tenses with Cartoons [online] [cit ]. Dostupné z: ZDROJE: